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The Role of Foreign Capital in the Competitiveness of the Hungarian Economy
Published August 6, 2020
71-77

Capital is needed for development, the catch-up with the developed countries, creating and boosting competitiveness, which may come from internal and external sources. Our internal resources have always been limited and still are, so we have to resort to external resources, too. The external source can be a foreign credit, a grant, an aid, and ...foreign direct investment. Foreign capital has been and still is indispensible in the various stages of our economic development.

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The Economy Contexts of the Modern Growing of Corn
Published August 21, 2020
254-259

The cereals are the most important and most determining cultivated plants of the world and our homeland. Their importance manifests itself in the fact that corns in the ear and corn occupy collectively 50%- of the world's tillage areas and 66-68% of the tillage areas of our homeland. The competitiveness of the cultivation to a great extent depe...nds on the modernity of the production, which is especially valid for our homeland. So I intended to analyse the economic situation of one of the most important cereals, the corn through the activity of a family economy working well. I examine the modern corn growing technology in my work. I present the operations belonging to the technology applied by the economy and I outline the operation norms. I calculate the expenses arising in the interest of corn growing, I define the material costs incurred, the personal expenses, the amortisation and other expenses. I calculate the income from the sales of corn growing with and without support and I also calculate the main capital efficiency indicators.

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The health resort sphere in Russia and evaluation of its potential for development
Published August 6, 2020
160-163

The article deals with the historical aspects of the sanatorium-resort complex formai on in Russia and it presents the assess of its current state; the main sources of funding of sanatorium- resort treatment for Russian citizens are described; tendencies of development of the market of SPA-services were shown; it includes informai on about the ...ways how to improve the services compei i veness; methods of the evaluai ng for poteni al of development in sanatorium-and-SPA services sphere are presented.

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Precision Farming as an Ecological Approach to Production?
Published August 6, 2020
19-25

Ecology is ot en suppressed compared to produci vity, which makes us believe that economy is more important than ecology. With the growth of social need for traceability, food safety and food security, the trend is to turn away from conveni onal technologies. The ecological approaches all must cope with signifi cant loss of yield, which hinders... their wide applicai on. Precision farming can be an opi on for the management to keep the high yield levels and decrease inputs at the same i me. The authors analyse, according to primary and secondary sources, precision farming compared to conveni onal and ecological farming to see the advantages and drawbacks of the diff erent technologies.

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EXPLORING NON-VALUE-CREATING PROCESSES USING THE VSM METHOD THROUGH A CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE’S MANUFACTURING SYSTEM.
Published June 30, 2020

One of the major problems in Hungary is the low level of productivity. This low level is particularly noticeable among small and medium-sized enterprises. In most regional and Western European countries, the average productivity level of enterprises of this size is higher than in Hungary. The current and expected shortage of labor in the near f...uture poses a challenge to businesses. Creating wage growth that contributes to retaining the workforce can only be achieved in the long run by increasing productivity. If an organization is unable to achieve productivity gains, it will fall short of both domestic and international-global competition. The application of modern management and management systems, such as lean management, can be a key element in increasing the productivity and competitiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. Lean management is one of the most common and effective process organization methods and paradigms used in the secondary and tertiary sectors, so much so that the use of lean-based management methods has in many cases become a competitive criterion and fundamental.

In our research, we prepare the value process mapping of a CNC metal cutting SME, including the value process of CNC milling and turning processes. This value process mapping method offers an opportunity to make losses in the industry become known and preventable. Through the preparation of the map, it is possible to illustrate the processes that produce mud and thus reduce the lead time and increase productivity. In the course of our study, we present the practical implementation of the method through the example of a company manufacturing metal parts machined with CNC technology.

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE STRATEGY FORMULATION PROCESS OF COMPANIES ECONOMIC GROWTH SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPETITIVENESS
Published August 21, 2020
39-48

The study has thoroughly presented the classic and new trends of economic gr owth, and on this basis, it can be stated that this is a complex system, and its analysis is almost always relevant, mostly because of the rapidly changing global systems and networks of contacts. The economic growth is extremely important in the 21st cent ury as well,... but with a new approach. Two very important factors appear: sustainability and social development. Albeit the economic growth and
the social development are in the opposite directions, not serving the basic idea of sustainable development at all. In this study, we aimed at portraying the complexity of this system and the range of factors influencing it.

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Financing SMEs – Prospects in Hungary
Published August 21, 2020
74-90

After joining the EU, micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises came to the focus of attention in Hungary for their grandiose role in both employment and producing added value. Due to their flexibility, creativity and adaptability SMEs find new market opportunities easier. Also, SMEs can find their way and seize appearing opportunities more q...uickly under rapidly changing, insecure and high-risk circumstances.When analysing the sector, besides the investigation of the external environment, it is also important to focus on internal factors. The success of businesses is not only influenced by their access to financial resources, but also by their internal organisational structure and the standard of their organisational culture. In the present phase of world economy, when
transports are delayed, credits are harder to obtain and companies downsize, leaders have to make careful and considerate management and operational decisions. Thus financial decisions have considerable short and long-term effects on the success of business operation.This research paper aims at a comprehensive study of the present situation of the Hungarian SME sector, some of its financing opportunities, as well as factors that hinder its development. Another purpose of the present writing is to lay the theoretical foundations for a primary questionnaire research exploring the financing characteristics of SMEs in Hungary.

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BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT FINANCIAL STABILITY IS A PREREQUISITE FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH
Published August 21, 2020
1-21

The central thought of this article is the relationship between the stability of public finances and the sustainable economic development of the country. The paper aims to find an answer to the question to what extent the outer and inner conditions of the social and economic functioning have contributed to, and hindered the domestic development... in the quarter of the century after the change of the regime. The article proves that stability and growth are predisposed to strengthen each other. In absence of financial stability, we cannot talk about competitiveness as a prerequisite for the sustainability of growth, or in a wider sense, the realization of the public good. The latter can be observed basically in the fact that the interests of financial stability and growth are in equilibrium and the satisfaction of socio economic needs is realized in the frame defined by them.

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The State of the Bulgarian Agricultural Sector in the First Period (2007-2013) of the EU Membership
Published August 21, 2020
54-60

With Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has become a decisive factor for the Bulgarian agriculture. The introduction and implementation of the CAP is far from optimal; positive and negative effects are both present. The performance of the agricultural sector in Bulgaria is not living up to its pote...ntial. Despite the subsidies received by the sector (more than 4 billion BGN), and the increasing national contributions between 2007 and 2013, its efficiency and profitability indicators have declined, and it remained at a low level of competitiveness. The processes of land concentration have accelerated. The SAPS subsidies are disproportionate and they prevent the shift to market orientation. The SAPS system caused
structural disharmony in the sector; the production of cereals and oilseeds has become predominant to livestock and fruit, and vegetable production. These problems can hardly be solved by the new CAP.

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The significane of environmental taxes used for mitigating the environment harmful impacts of road transportation
Published August 21, 2020
47-53

Logistics is one of the most important economic sectors of the European Union, with nearly 1.134 million companies engaged in the field of transportation in the EU. The global logistics market is expected to show further expansion in the forthcoming years. On the other side stands global warning which is one of the greatest problems for the tim...e being. The European Commission has announced a cross-sectoral investment programme worth more than 10 billion euros (nearly 3,200 billion Hungarian forints) for the planning, development and implementation of low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies to improve Europe’s global competitiveness. The common data base of OECD and the European Environment Agency (EEA) currently lists 375 environmental taxes and approximately 250 environmental fees or charges in the OECD countries. Among the EU member states, Sweden, for example, introduced a tax system which includes the essential elements of eco-tax more than 10 years ago. Hungary has several of such tax types, such as the excise tax on fuel, the energy tax, the energy suppliers’ income tax or the vehicle tax.

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