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Published December 31, 2021

Relations between Turkey and the European Union can be traced back to the emergence of the legal predecessors of the EU. Relations are positive in the long term, as there is a gradual approach between the parties. In the short term however, this relationship is also experiencing extreme swings. In the past, gradual approach has been interru...pted by military coups and invasions. There was also a problem due to the different approaches to several issues, in which the actors examined the status of Turkey from different perspectives and whether it could even be considered a European country. Today, Turkey is overshadowing its own accession to the European Union because of its regional political interests in the Middle East. With this behavior, Turkey can create significant tensions with neighboring European Union countries or become part of conflicts with a doubtful outcome that will damage its own perception of Europe. The social changes that have started in the country may pave the way for Turkey to enter the European Union in the foreseeable future. However, as it stands, it will take decades. The parties will not terminate their economic relations, change is possible at the political level.


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Local geopolitics, and spatial development
Published December 31, 2020

Local geopolitics is in fact the application of geopolitical tools in the definition of local conflicts. This topic is a brand new branch of the French geopolitical research areas. In France since the 1980’s, the reforms related to the division of scope of competence between the state and territorial governments have had an increasing effect ...on the relationship of local communities and of those communities with the state. One of the key characteristics of this relationship is the effort to harmonize the needs of local communities and of spatial development. Researching the geopolitics of spatial development is an important issue of local geopolitics in France today. The matter of mid-level spatial development is widely challenging for French professionals therefore it is worth having a look at it – especially as this level of development has gone through major changes recently in Hungary

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