The Romani population in Central Europe is fighting with many societal problems. Societal crises appear in connection with employment, housing, demographic development and backwardness in education. All these factors have a negati ve impact on the health of the population: the health status of the Romani is worse than that of the non-Romani pop
...ulation living around them. The compensati on of these disadvantages does not solely depend on providing equal opportunities. The Romani people’s special diseases originating from their special genetic characteristics and their way of life distinguish them from the non-Romani population. A uniform treatment does not offer a solution. In their healthcare we should consider and give priority to the Romani specific diseases, such as founder mutati ons common in the Romani populati on as autosomal recessive disorders. Whereas the mutati ons frequently observed in the Romani groups are sporadicin other, non-Romani populati ons worldwide. Thus the founder mutati on analysis is important for predicting the incidence of certain rare diseases not readily thought about in non-Romani, yet possibly present in the local Romani populati ons, especially when diagnosti c problems appear. The research of these diseases is especially important in terms of populati on genetics, public health, and also economically due to the expansive existence of the Romani populati on. The identification of these diseases allows a rapid diagnosis and in some cases it also delays the onset of symptoms. It can have a great impact on public health intervention as it makes the planning and the implementation of targeted preventative measures possible.