Vol 9, No 2 (2018)

Published July 16, 2018

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Articles

A BIZTONSÁG ÉRTÉKE ÉS ÁRA
1-6

This paper highlights the philosophical and sociological aspects of safety and the economic aspects of security. Although catastrophic potential inherent in (post-)modern risks is not the main cause of the rise of security debates nowadays, these have only gone viral as universal societal problems in the late 20th and the early 21st centuries. ...Actually, political discourse has always operated with the safety concept from the Roman rhetors to modern state leadership, often using it for manipulative purposes. Security-focused policy campaigns target the ancient, visceral fear of deaths like magic, rites, and religions providing false promises to satisfy our desire for safety. However, this desire shares the utopian character with such notions like freedom, equality or justice: all of them are unattainable. No government or institution can guarantee our safety but our security. While safety is a public or private good which is not for sale as it only has an ideal value, security is a common ware which has its price. Security is the economic aspect of safety. It is a commonplace that safety is costly, but lack of safety could be even more costly. Measuring costs of lacking safety and willingness-to-pay for security measures are crucial for the economic aspects of  safety. 

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THE ECONOMIC CULTURE OF SECURITY
7-21

There is an old advertising slogan: ‘Insurance is security’. This is a watertight establishment both from an economic-philosophical and an insurance-theoretical view. Those who strive for security, insure themselves. The mountaineer acts this way if he or she takes a security rope with himself or herself or the acrobat who has a security ne...t stretched under himself or herself before his or her ‘death leap’. The businessman does the same who insures not only his dangerous deals but also his seemingly safe transactions to the necessary degree. He strives for security, he is fully aware that he has to manage risk; his civilization in this field leads him to the culture of insurance and security, so much so that nowadays the need for security has been associated with every success-oriented economic and financial transaction. The study gives a historical account of the development of insurance and security and the culture of security from ancient times to the present complemented with the corporate circle, with the central problems of health insurance.

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Controlling Methods for SMEs’ Risk Reduction
23-30

A substantial proportion of entrepreneurs strive to reduce the risk of their activity, which means they refer to a number of methods known, but rarely applied by them. Risk reduction activities can be totally interconnected with the ‘controlling’ approach and methods that are still not well known to a lot of company executives, but the intr...oduction and application of those methods provide tangible results for business decision-makers within a relatively short period of time. The paper presents the size, activity, financial process characteristics, planning features, suppliers and buyers' evaluation practices of the investigated SMEs using correlation analysis methods. The study is a continuation of a research topic that has been going on for many years and is based on data collection from the years 2015 and 2016. We have evaluated the planning and management features of a total of 53 micro, small and medium-sized enterprises by questionnaire processing.

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CONSCIOUSNESS AND CONSUMER PROTECTION ON THE ONLINE MARKETS
31-38

The consumer asserts that his or her decisions are consistent and rational. Basically, we must distinguish between real and presumed awareness. Real awareness is rooted in the knowledge of consumer rights, while presumed awareness exists only in the consumer’s belief in himself. The purpose of my research is to assess the level of consumer pr...otection knowledge of the respondents and to draw conclusions about the consumers’ awareness, i.e. to measure awareness in terms of consumer protection on the online markets. I can state that the rules of the 14 day period of withdrawal without stating reasons when shopping
online and the VAT and customs duty obligations of foreign webshops are less known by online customers.

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WARRANTY IN THE MIND OF CONSUMERS
39-48

Warranty is the essential tool in consumer protection. We can presume that consumers know the most important rules of warranty regulation because everyone is affected by it. I think if the consumer has no accurate information on the warranty in this case, consumer awareness can be questioned. According to my research (sample size is 2182 person...s) the respondents are convinced that an obligatory guarantee shall be due on a HUF 4,999 technical product (hairdryer). Only 19.7% of the respondents knew this was not really the case. It is striking that only 56.3% of the respondents were able to say that the mandatory legal guarantee period for a technical product (television) was 12 months. All kinds of figures appeared in the responses relating to the warranty period (6, 18, 36, 60 months). We can state that the knowledge of consumer rights is very poor in Hungary.

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SEGMENTATION USING A DECISION TREE
49-54

In the field of economics, the knowledge of high-level mathematical and statistical methods is necessary for a demanding analysis. Today the various items, indexes, and distributions are user-friendly analytical tools that have been built into computer programmes. In the case of uncertain decisions, decision trees are being applied in more and ...more areas. Using this method, decision rules can be created, so they can be used for segmentation as well. The study presents a
classification suitable for such a grouping.

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THE FAMILY HOUSING ALLOWANCE AND THE EFFECTS EXPECTED
55-63

In every field of the economy, like housing, state regulations play an important role. The role of state regulations is shown by the Family Housing Allowance (CSOK) as a governmental influential tool, which means development for several families with a faster administration and with favourable terms. We used primary and secondary research as we...ll to present our findings in this article. Our questionnaire-based survey primarily focuses on the examination of the acquaintance level of the CSOK among the Hungarian residents, the motivationial level to participate in the programme and the effects and the results of the CSOK.

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LIFE ISSUES IN THE LIGHT OF SELF-KNOWLEDGE: THE EXPERIENCES OF AN OPTIONAL UNDERGRADUATE COURSE
65-70

‘Life Issues’ was actually invented as a knowledge development special course advertised as an optional subject, generating great interest among students. In this case the knowledge development meant the achievement of a deeper level of self-awareness, which was fully realized in this semester. The student reflections speak for themselves. ...At the end of the course we drew the conclusion with the students together: psychological safety is created by self-knowledge and the harmony evolved with the world.

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