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Analysis of organic farming’s economic viability at different subsidy levels
Published July 28, 2008
111-118

Applying a data-collection-based economic model, I analyzed the economic viability of organic farming at different subsidy levels. The database is concentrated on the Hortobagy region. On the basis of data, I built an average sized and operated organic farm model with both arable land cultivation and animal keeping activities. The analysis of v...iability is based on gross profit calculation and compared with the criteria of the long-term economic viability, determined by the author. This study summarizes the most important results of the analysis.

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Storage of ram semen in gelatin supplemented extender
Published July 31, 2012
7-10

The aim of our study was to examine how different gelatin concentrations affect ram semens viability in liquid storage at 5 oC for five days. Our hypothesis was if we add gelatin to the semen extender, than the viability of ram semen will be better in the extenders containing gelatin, than the control. We used two different semen ext...enders:1.5% UHT milk and 1.5% UHT milk + 5% egg yolk. We added 0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0% Dr. Oetker gelatin to the semen extenders. We stored the semen for five days at 5 oC and in every 24 hour we made sampling.
We stained the smears with Kovács-Foote staining and evaluated them with light-microscope. We categorized the cells in five groups like: live and intact cells, live cells with injured acrosome, dead cells, live head with dead tail and live tail with dead head. We used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assign how gelatin concentration affects the number of the categorized cells. On the fifth day, the viability was the best in the following semen extenders: 1.5% fat UHT milk + 1.0% gelatin and 1.5% fat UHT milk + 1.5% gelatin, but it was not significant (p>0.05).

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Evaluation of tree measurements after the reconstruction of tree-row system in five narrow streets of Debrecen
Published June 30, 2018
217-222

Viable urban environment is largely dependent on the size, condition and distribution of urban green spaces within and around cities. Treerows in streets are one of the most essential elements of urban green spaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate tree taxa compositions and lifespan values of trees in tree-row system with special referenc...e to five narrow streets (Garai, Jókai, Tanító, Csokonai and Zsák) of Debrecen. Tree numbers, tree taxa and the origin of tree taxa were determined in two years (2009 and 2017). As a next step, six selected taxa (Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer', Acer tataricum, Sorbus intermedia 'Browseri', Magnolia kobus, Acer platanoides 'Olmsted', and Crataegus x lavalleei 'Carrierei') were further estimated for the following lifespan parameters: i) trunk diameter (cm), ii) tree crown size (m), iii) trunk status (in 0–5 grades), iv) tree crown status (in 0–5 grades), v) estimated tree viability (in 0–5 grades), and vi) tree value in Ft. Our results showed that the numbers of tree taxa were 9 and 11 in 2009 and 2017 as well as an overall 279 and 282 trees were evaluated in 2009 and in 2017, respectively. More than 60% of the trees were native or similar to native taxa. The largest and the lowest trunk diameters were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The largest and the lowest tree crown diameters were achieved for Acer platanoides ’Olmsted’ and for Magnolia kobus, respectively. The best and the worst trunk statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Crataegus x lavalleei, respectively. The best and the worst tree crown statuses by 2017 were achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer tataricum, respectively. The best estimated tree viability status was achieved for Pyrus calleryana 'Chanticleer' and for Acer platanoides. Overall tree values were 2.73 times higher in 2017 compared to 2009. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated the importance of appropriate choice of tree taxa for an establishment of tree-row system in narrow street conditions.

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Case study based analyses of economic viability of Hungarian beef farms
Published July 16, 2007
184-193

Our country has great traditions in the field of beef production. As early as the Middle Ages, Hungary was known as Europe’s beef exporter. In this decade, production of the Hungarian Grey has increased, due to the popular method of keeping these animals extensively. These animals were even exported to the European markets on foot.
After j...oining the European Union, this sector of agriculture has been receiving attention due to the major subsidies which were given. Accordingly, numerous farmers have tried to enter this sector of production. However, the power relations have been changed lately, as have the technology used in production, which has undergone several developments. The integrative connections in the sector had been split and also the size of optimal and sustainable production has arisen.
The economic activities must be judged by their effectiveness and profitability, but in most cases their effectiveness can only be seen through such outstanding facts which are independent from the farmer.
I would like to model the economy of a certain enterprise, and the size and the level of its production, through my research under the actual economic circumstances. In my research, I pay special attention to the circumstances which are important in the Hungarian agricultural sector and rural development.

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Characterisation of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS712
Published October 20, 2009
7-13

Fermentation at high temperature with application of thermotolerant microorganisms is a technological advantage in bioethanol production. Among the yeasts, K. marxianus has outstanding thermotolarance. The industrial application of the IMB3 strain occurs usually at 45C. The final aim of our project is the genetic modification of the K. marxianu...s CBS712 strain in order to achieve ethanol production at higher temperature than the currently applied. This requires the characterization of the CBS712 strain, with special attention to the determination of the temperature limit of its growth and the amount of the ethanol produced. The temperature limit of growth was 48C in YPD medium. Elevation of the temperature above 45C led to an exponential drop of the cell viability. Ethanol production was tested in shaking flasks, in MYFM medium, under oxigene limited conditions, applying variable concentrations of glucose (12–20%) and different temperatures (45–47 ºC). Preliminary results have revealed that the elevation of glucose concentration increased the amount of ethanol produced. The amount of ethanol (appr. 5%)+ produced at the highest glucose concentration was not different at the tested temperatures (45, 46 and 47 ºC). The observation indicates the potential in raising the thermotolerance of the strain. 

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The recent state of cryopreservation techniques for ex-situ gene conservation and breeding purposes in small ruminants: A review
Published May 20, 2020
81-87

The viewpoint of the recent cryopreservation techniques (CT) suggests the use of a reduced volume of cryopreservation solution, high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling and warming rates help to reduce cryo-injury and maximize the viability of the preserved animal genetic resources (AnGR). The CT had now become widely a...ccepted as one of the best methods of choice for the ex-situ conservation of AnGR due to its high success rate recorded and no-invasive nature as compared to the conventional slow rate freezing (CSRF). Rapid advances and wide acceptability of the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART’s) particularly artificial insemination (AI) in animal breeding had resulted in a greater loss of a large number of good quality genes in virtually almost all the native breeds of animals across the globe. Small ruminant (SR) animals are not an exception in such present predicaments situation of erosion and dilution of the valuable AnGR among the native breeds. As a result of this, 148 and 16 breeds of sheep and goats respectively have already become extinct in Europe and the Caucasus. In view of the aforementioned situation, the present review aimed at exploring some of the current states of development, roles played and potentials of CT in the conservation of SR genes and genome for the immediate and future breeding purposes for sustainable development. It basically covers; animal genetic resource, the need to conserve AnGR, tools for ex situ in vitro conservation of AnGR and recent developments in breeding and cryopreservation of SR AnGR.

Cryopreservation is playing a pivotal role in ex-situ gene conservation of AnGR. Decline in genetic diversity among SR breed population was high in Europe and the Caucasus. There is therefore, need for improvent on current stringent measures on conservation of AnGR in this region of the world.

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Production of novel fermented milks
Published November 13, 2012
303-305

The objective of this research was to test the influence of various natural substances on acid production, growth, and viability of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt and probiotic fermented dairy foods. Oligofructose, inulin, honey, and the dried biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were found to stimulate the growth rate and acid... production activity of the major thermophilic diary cultures tested and, in addition to this, the presence of the aforementioned substrates also improved the survival of starter bacteria in fermented milk products during storage. The reduced production time of cultured milks resulted in increased production efficiency. The stimulatory and/or protective effect of oligofructose,
inulin, honey, and Spirulina on Bifidobacterium spp. is probably the most important finding of this study because bifidobacteria do not grow well in milk and they have low survival rates in conventional fermented milks. Some of the bioactive substances tested were also capable of exerting an antifungal effect on spoilage yeasts and molds, and improving the nutritional and sensory properties of the final product, thus providing a new opportunity for manufacture of functional fermented dairy foods.

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Economic Assessment of Biodiesel Production for Hungarian Farmers
Published May 12, 2002
72-76

Utilisation of oil of plant origin as a fuel is gaining acceptance in the European Union and elsewhere. Besides environmental protection, energy saving, and decreasing over-production of food. Additionally, the subsidisation of farmers and the development of rural sub-regions also contribute to its spread. This study specifically focuses on the... direct effects biodiesel's raw materials and final products are now having on farmers, while reviewing and quantifying these effects. I have purposely restricted my analysis to these two elements of the biodiesel chain.
The biodiesel chain seems to be a great method for improving the economic and social position of participant farmers in many ways. Presently, the profitability of raw materials’ production looks to be the crucal point in the chain, and could be strengthened best with intensive, habitat-specific agrotechnic. It would only be possible to reach a favourable profit margin for farmers if yields reach unrealistic averages or if there is a significant hike of the 2000 producer’s price in the oil plant branch.
The main attraction of sunflower- and oilseed rape production lies in the stabilization of market conditions, which is not only gong to appear in oil plant branch but – thanks to the reduction of outputs – also in the cereal branches. Better economic safety for farmers may play a role at least on the same level as in plant production, which involves more risks than profit maximalization.
The reduction of the prime cost of biodiesel could be possible through the direct combustion of the whole oilseed plant or its residues or electricity production using them. Whereas energy demand for biodiesel production is low (appr. 5%) but it needs subsidization and the prices of natural gas and electrical energy presently look favourable in Hungary. Additionally harvesting and baling of the residues is technically problematic, which is why their use may seem to be reasonable just over the middle or long term. Another possible factor of cost reduction could be the centralization of some partial operations, which needs serious financial resources to reduce amortization cost per product, provided there be several biodiesel projects near each other during establishment. Creation and operation of a logistical system could also be a good method for improving the viability of the biodiesel chain, in order to optimize transport schedule and distances. However there are also some organizational difficulties in this case.

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Changes in Managerial Functions in Agriculture
Published September 15, 2003
64-71

Managerial activity is a process constituted by well separable functions, tasks. The functions and the content of managerial activity are influenced by several factors.
This multi-sided affectedness focused our attention on the analysis of management tasks. We aimed to formulate responses for the questions how and to what extent the activiti...es and tasks of organizations define the tasks and functions at the given organization. On the basis of interview surveys, we analyzed the following managerial tasks: functions concerning information, communication, planning, decision-making, organization, control. The interviewed had to rank the factors influencing management tasks on a scale ranging from one to five. On the basis of the activities and tasks of organizations, we defined three types. The scope of this study does not allow us to publish all the results related to the above-mentioned managerial functions, so we can only present some, which are of interest.
Our findings suggest that the realization of certain management functions is influenced by several factors. Without striving for completeness, we could only evaluate 9-11 factors per function. The evaluation of information sources is considerably differentiated in terms of the activities, tasks of organizations. In the assessment of plans, the potentials for realization and repetition were judged differently, whereas non-organization changes and individual planning similarly. The findings of impact factors in decision making are largely different, as well in terms of organizational activities, but all the interviewed ranked the interests of the organization high. Analysis on control indicated that managers attributed higher importance to issues of content than to methodological ones.
Our investigations follow Fayol’s classical groups based on managerial tasks. We studied the following five tasks in the process of management: information tasks, planning, decision-making, instructions and control. We performed our studies with the inclusion of agricultural organization managers, with questionnaire surveys. The interviewed were asked to qualify the impact factors on the five investigated management tasks on a scale ranging from 1-5. We identified the following company groups: small company, medium company and large company.
We performed our analysis on the basis of company sizes as well, seeking to formulate responses on how size influences the qualification of the investigated factors.
Our findings suggest that the interviewed company managers attribute higher than average roles to the tasks of the management process. The qualification, ranking of management tasks are considerably influenced by company sizes. Relationships and venues are important in the implementation of information tasks, whereas the viability of plans is essential in the process of planning. Usefulness and company interests are highlighted in decision-making. In the case of instructions and decision-making, we stressed the significance of content elements as opposed to formal ones.

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Application of semen evaluation techniques
Published April 23, 2014
5-11

Laboratory methods of semen evaluation are used to select males for artificial insemination. The current review describes several techniques that have been recently used for sperm analysis. Conventional microscopic methods in combination with the objective computerassisted sperm motility and morphology analyzers and flow cytometry, allows to ob...tain more precise information about the membrane and functional status of spermatozoa. By using several methods to detect motility, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status besides DNA integrity sperm biology and some of the mechanism involved in sperm cry injury can be better understood. The number of possible targets related to sperm quality is increasing, and possible that some of them could enable sperm analysis for predicting freezability and fertility to be improved.

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Viability and Economies of Scale in EU Farms
Published December 6, 2005
332-338

With this study, the author intends to draw up the main characteristics of the institutional background of the Farm Accountancy Data Network, operated by the European Union. Among the factors that contribute to the formation of the institutional background of the FADN database, special emphasis is laid on the Commission and member state level l...egal framework, in order to provide potential Hungarian users of the database with authentic and substantial information. Also, much attention is paid to definitional misunderstandings which cause, or might cause the farm business management type utilization of the database to be imperfect. As for this goal, some of the elements of the FADN information structure are investigated in a conventional Hungarian cost structure. In order to facilitate an easier understanding of the database, the different relations of economic size classes are also reviewed in this study. The author of this study is – in the first place – trying to analyze the meaning of Standard Gross Margin, the index used in the FADN structure to categorize farms, by localizing the position of the different cost constituents of SGM in a conventional Hungarian cost matrix. Last, but not least, the author is trying to draw all researcher’s attention on the possibilities, hidden in the FADN database by introducing some analyses from his own field of interest based on FADN information.

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