Nowadays more and more pronounced demand for tertiary education appears as an output of the labor market and the real labor market needs coordination of intention. A necessary condition for the long-term sector strategies, conscious coordination. In Hungary – the sector management level – headed tertiary education training structure and the... transformation of the institutional network. There is a close relationship between training supply and research and development potential, as an institution typically the same disciplinary education and research base continues. Based on this, we assume that the structure of the training may influence the development of the restructuring of the research and development potential as well. The institutional network reorganization (merger, liquidation, establishment of new institutions) is expected to result in a former spatial structure of tertiary education in the modification, which in itself is a training and research supply spatial rearrangement may apply. Against this background, questions have been raised as to how the objectives in the current tertiary education strategy for economic operators serving the needs of each territorial unit, how the institution fits into network transformation of economic structure and labor market needs of the regions.
In order for the Hungarian tertiary education can meet the requirement for industry standards, an essential part of the structure of industries, and the changes occurring in the economic structure, trends and industry relations in the investigation. On the other hand, we do not ignore those factors are not, which have a determining influence on the tertiary education institutions in training and R&D supply. As part of this study in tertiary education institutions will be examined possible factors influencing education, research and development demand and supply, which gets a prominent role in the economic structure of relations between the territorial dimension in the evolution of discount factors and the nature of particular sectors.
Modern animal husbandry has drastically changed the genetic structure of some domestic species. The varieties, genotypes that we think we do not need at the moment can only be saved from extinction with the help of gene conservation. Traditional Hungarian horse breeds have a long history (more than 200 years) and a demonstrably different ge...netic structure from other horse breeds in Europe and the rest of the world. Consequently, their enormous genetic value is undoubted. The subject of our research was to study the structure of the mare families found in the population of the Lipizzan horse breed and the genetic structure of the Hungarian population. Out of the total 61 mare families in the world, 35 are present in Hungary. There are 11 Hungarian, 12 families of Fogaras, 7 original, 4 Croatian and 1 Slovenian mare families in the Hungarian population. The proportion of mare families in Hungary and Fogaras is almost the same. The proportion of Croatian and Slovenian families is negligible. In terms of their number, they are not significant in Hungary. For this reason they have little effect on the Hungarian Lipizzan population. Except one of the original mare families are in the same situation as the Croatian and Slovenian families. The Presciana / Bradamanta mare family is the most populous of all families due to their long stay in Hungary. The proportion of families is unbalanced. Seven mare families accounting for 56.36% of the total population. Given the basic requirements of gene conservation work, this condition is far from optimal.
From June 2012 continuous traffic has begun between London Luton and Debrecen at the International Airport of Debrecen, which is considered a milestone in the growth of passenger traffic. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the fact that growt of passengers depends, on the visitors satisfaction with services used by them. The research o...f the customer service requires to develop process structure that includes the services used by the passengers from arriving at the airport to leaving the airport. A process structure like this allows us to carry out a benchmarking method to compare the passaenger services of other cities. To build up a structure we have to make segmentation according to the travellers’ motivation because they use different services according to their motivation. A questionnaire of customer satisfaction will be presented which results are the basis of the creation of benchmarking and creation of process structures.
During my research, I have studied the relationships of the organizational development and the managerial functions at a specific governmental agency, the police. The police carry out official activities, but also provide a service which essentially assumes two types of contact systems and modes of management. To meet the demands of the citizen...s and to ensure the effectiveness of the organization, it is necessary to develop the managerial methods applied at the police, on the one hand, and to use certain parts of the organizational development, on the other hand.
The police organization has changed significantly after the integration of the Police and Border Guards. The complexity of the structure and the anomalies in the work load, as well as several researches conducted by myself directed my attention to elaborate an organizational development method that can be applied to the current organization, while it improves the operation of the organization.
The police’s operation and its organizational structure are determined by the laws, thus changing the structure of the organization is placed within relatively narrow limits. The police managers have the soft parts such as human resource development, skills, and management style at their disposal to develop the organization, but their use is isolated and they are not for a long term. The present article aims to present the set-up model related to the organizational development of the police, elaborated by myself, in terms of the leadership and the management styles, whose long-term use may contribute to the efficiency of the operation.
Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheolog...ical properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.
revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and... they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
The methods and means of examinations
We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.
With this study, the author intends to draw up the main characteristics of the institutional background of the Farm Accountancy Data Network, operated by the European Union. Among the factors that contribute to the formation of the institutional background of the FADN database, special emphasis is laid on the Commission and member state level l...egal framework, in order to provide potential Hungarian users of the database with authentic and substantial information. Also, much attention is paid to definitional misunderstandings which cause, or might cause the farm business management type utilization of the database to be imperfect. As for this goal, some of the elements of the FADN information structure are investigated in a conventional Hungarian cost structure. In order to facilitate an easier understanding of the database, the different relations of economic size classes are also reviewed in this study. The author of this study is – in the first place – trying to analyze the meaning of Standard Gross Margin, the index used in the FADN structure to categorize farms, by localizing the position of the different cost constituents of SGM in a conventional Hungarian cost matrix. Last, but not least, the author is trying to draw all researcher’s attention on the possibilities, hidden in the FADN database by introducing some analyses from his own field of interest based on FADN information.
The most common aim of animal conservation programs is to maintain genetic diversity. Furioso-North Star is an indigenous Hungarian horse breed originated from Mezőhegyes Stud. The breed is based on two founder stallions, Furioso Senior and North Star Senior. The aim of this research study was to analyze the effect of the foreign breeding...stallions to the genetic structure of Hungarian Furioso-North Star breed. The genetic structure of the breed was studied from pedigree data what was received from the Furioso-North Star Horse Breeding Association. Foals born between 2015–2018 were chosen as reference population. Every breeding stallion was marked by nationality (Austrian, Czech, German, Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak) according to their birth place. The population was described with genetic variability, what was calculated using Endog software. The Furioso-North Star breed is popular in Central Europe and nearby countries. The stallion imports and the stallion transfers were necessary and useful as they made changes in the composition of the genetic variability. The new genes and the new lines have refreshed the genetic structure. There were several breeds, like the Nonius, Shagya Arabian and English Thoroughbred, whose had an impact on the genetic structure of the Furioso-North Star breed.
Soil structure and its quality are fundamental properties because they control many processes in soils. Tillage, crop and other factors influence soil structure. Efficient protection of it needs indication of changes in soil structure. A new Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) tries to evaluate these changes, which was comp...ared with some former used indices. The most common method (wet sieving) was modified to reduce the confounding effects of different particle size distribution of different soil types and method used to the investigation. Changes in soil structure caused by tillage and crop management therefore have been made quantitative and comparable. In this paper, we review the new method and Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) and present the results of our investigations.
In our days, ecologiacal and economic models of agricultural application are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and thus can favourably influence the efficiency and the economic situation of the given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most... common is the division between optimising and non-optimising models. Non-olptimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, of machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenues returns from sales; or occasionally, production costs. In our case revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consists of several modules. These are the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model annual plans of plant cultivation can be made an optimal crop structure may be planned with the resources of the enterprise taken into consideration, and thereby it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.
The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been having a great past, it is over numerous direction and structure changes in the last half century. After the Treaty of Rome, the harmonization of he agricultural structure and the production of Member States has been launched, during which the economic changes in the world and in Europe were continuousl...y being kept track of. By using common experience, they strived to develop an agricultural sector that supplies the Member States of the Community with food, while the competitiveness and living circumstances of family farms are being improved. The general directions outlined in Stresa in 1958 were significantly redrawn owing to the transformed market conditions and EU accessions. The subsidization of family farms and the improvement of their profitability are having a stressed importance nowadays, too. Our country, as the fully qualified member of the European Union tries to meet its obligations undertaken in the accession treaty and therefore to develop an agricultural sector carrying out diversified agricultural production with a healthy age structure. The aim of the study is to specifically overview the issue of common agricultural policy by stressing the main development points and to introduce the Hungarian conditions of family farms. Besides, there will be an evaluation of the research works examining the income conditions of family farms in the North Great Plain region.
The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.
Today, c for agricultural use are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and favourably influence the efficiency and economic performance of given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most common is the division between optimising and non-optimis...ing models. Non-optimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenue returns from sales or, occasionally, production costs. In our case, revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consist of several modules. Which include the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model, annual a particular can be made for an optimal crop structure the resources of the enterprise. This it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.
The Eurasian Collared Dove shows different patterns in density all over Hungary. In some cases, the population has decreased to a lower level, but there are habitats where the population remained stable. Several factors were taken into consideration during the evaluation of this phenomenon. These publications state that the increased urbanizati...on of corvids, the lack of food sources, and the changes in nesting sites caused the decrease in numbers. During our research, we intend to contrast the differences in population structure of Collared Doves that differ from each other in the density of predators presented at nesting sites. As a first step, in this paper, numerous samples (n=118) were taken from a population that is less influenced by corvid species’ nest predation. Our prediction was that the population parameters remained at the level of 1980’s, in which the population of Eurasian Collared Dove has reached its maximum, according to further publications.
During the evaluation process, our data were collected from hunting bags near Nyíregyháza. Results were compared with former publications. We stated that the population structure, such as age and gender distribution remained stable in the evaluated population. In addition, morphometric factors of the collected individuals were also measured, such as weight, wing length, 3rd primary feather, and tail length, which were compared with former surveys. During statistical tests no significant difference was revealed among population parameters, but there were significant differences between most of the morphometric data, (p>0.05).
There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm struc...ture. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.
According to new amendments of laws, commercial fishing licenses of natural waters shall not be issued from the calendar year 2016 in Hungary. However, the most settlement of white fish to angler ponds originated from natural waters. Currently, there is no sufficient quantity of fish species belonging to this group available to fulfil the settl...ement commitments of fish farmers. The aim of this recent study is to develop a breeding and production technology that is suitable for settlement of large quantities of this fish species of appropriate length of (4–5 cm). The following methods are investigated: aquaculture cage system (pond-in-pond system), monoculture and mixed population with different ratio of white fish in fish structure. Due to the different environmental needs of different fish species, many parameters need to be investigated, for example: stocking density, feeding, oxygen level, monoculture or mixed populations, growth potential and mortality. A preliminary experiment was carried out following the artificial propagation of ide (Leuciscus idus) following a 21-day larval rearing experiment in which the effect of different stoking density was investigated for mortality and growth. On the basis of the expected results, the optimal conditions for the aquaculture cage system will be described, regarding to the white fish stock.
The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The sowing structure adapted to the ecological background increases the yield and decreases the yield fluctuation caused natural effects. Exact long-term trials a...re essential to develop variety structure of winter wheat production suitable for the given ecological conditions. We have examined the productivity and yield stability of genetically different state registered winter wheat varieties. We have compared the varieties’ yield results in plot trials, at similar agrotechnical conditions, in different cropyears. We have examined the absolute and relative (compared to the mean of varieties) yield of winter wheat varieties. We have valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the connection between productivity and yield stability of varieties. We have pointed out the varieties with good productivity and yield stability in given agroecological conditions.
According to the results of our examinations the developing of variety structure suitable for the agroecological conditions could increase the potential and effective yield level of wheat production.
The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general,...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.
An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.
The main aim of this study is to explore the connections between the unique settlement structure circumstances of Hajdúböszörmény and the social problams related to the gypsy minority. After the change of regime, the gypsy population increased especially quickly in some parts of the city, which is in connection with the settlement network p...osition and the internal division of the settlement. The significant segregation of the gypsy
minority appeared as a new phenomenon in the city, whose reason was the increasing migration of gypsies from Northeastern Hungary and the relatively low price of the abandoned real estates located in the outskirts and external settlement parts of the city. Even the gypsy population living in the city for a long time separates itself from the immigrant groups that live in run down houses and practicle have no connection with the job market of the city. It is the typical rural segregation process known only in small village regions (e.g. Southern Baranya, Cserehát) that now goes
on in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény.
In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.
Every university was funded in different historical periods with particular feature, particular political system, particular proprietory structure and particular economic background, which characterised the particular era. The historical antecedents considerably influenced the situation and role of the institutions as well as the course of thei...r development. Although they had common features but their spatial projections are very dissimilar. In the 19th and 20th century Hungarian history – in the periods of economic integration with the modification of political system and transformation of the social background – the economic and social functions of tertiary education underwent considerable changes, which started to accomplish by the second half of the 20th century and the early 21st century. To moderate regional disparities, European and Hungarian regional development policy considers particular importance to the economic structure of the regions and their potential to be reformed, which is one of the corner stones of compatibility. Considering the more and more diversifying functions of universities, the question is, which factor is more significant; tertiary education or the relation between the sectors of national economy. The possible correlations we presented through the economic structure and the transformation of tertiary education functions of the integration periods.
technical and economic characteristics, which give rise to high levels of uncertainty and greater control in the supply chain. In order to investigate the role of different transaction costs in marketing behavior, we carried out research in the central region of Hungary among beef retailers and wholesalers. This research is based on primary dat...a collection and examines the motivation of choices in the beef sector on distinction among different marketing channels and the role of transaction costs in procurement. Since this case can be regarded as a qualitative choice situation the hypothesis that transaction cost’s variables are significant is judged by the application of multinomial logit model in order come up with the variables that can influence the supply chain structure and the choice of different marketing channels. This analysis enabled us to explore the structure in data and confirm or reject the expected interrelations of causative variables. Our
1 A szerző témavezetője Dr. Fertő Imre.
2 A kutatás az OTKA F038082 sz. „Vertikális koordinációs és integrációs modellek az élelmiszer-gazdaságban” c. programja keretében valósult meg.
3 A szerző köszöni Dr. Fertő Imrének és Dr. Szabó G. Gábornak, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Közgazdaságtudományi Kutatóközpont tudományos főmunkatársainak a kutatás során nyújtott nagy értékű segítséget. results partly support and contradict the basic predictions of transaction cost economics.
Soil structure and changes in its quality caused by Maize stem (1), Wheat straw (2) and Maize stem & wheat straw (3) addition were assessed by three aggregate-stability indices. We observed that the NSI index formula proposed by Six et al. (2000) was nonsensitive to the changes in soil structure caused by the investigated organic matter add...ition. Furthermore it overestimates the aggregate-stability of the investigated silty sandy loam soil. Therefore we proposed a new modified NSI formula which is sensitive to the questionable treatments and that resulted in a more
realistic NSI data. The most sensitive index to differences of the investigated treatments were the Mean weight diameter (MWD) proposed by van Bavel (1953, in Kemper és Rosneau, 1986).