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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Examination of the physical state of the soil under conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 10, 2013
183-186

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">he effect of reduced and conventional tillage systems on soil compaction and moisture content in two years with extreme weather conditions is introduced in this paper. The investigations were carried out in a long-term soil cultivation experiment set on a heavy textured meadow chernozem soil at the Karcag Research Institute. In 2010 the amount of precipitation during the vegetation period of winter wheat was 623.3 mm, 2.2 times higher than the 50-year average, while in 2011 this value was 188.7 mm giving only 65% of the average. The examinations were made after harvest on stubbles on 4 test plots in 5 replications in the case of each tillage system. Soil compaction was characterised by penetration resistance values, while the actual soil moisture contents were determined by gravimetry. The values of penetration resistance and soil moisture content of the cultivated soil layer were better in the case of reduced tillage under extreme precipitation conditions. It could be established that regular application of deep soil loosening is essential due to the formation of the unfavourable compact soil layer under 30 cm. Conventional tillage resulted in enhanced compaction under the depth of ploughing, the penetration resistance can reach the value of 4 MPa under wet, while even 8 MPa under dry soil status.

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Effect of PRPSOL soil conditioner on the physical status of the soil in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 25, 2014
109-113

The effect of PRP-SOL soil conditional on soil compaction, moisture content and bulk density is studied in a long-term soil cultivation experiment from 1997 on a heavy textured meadow chernozem soil, in reduced and conventional tillage at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were made in the vegetation period of corn, in June and after... harvesting, on stubble. Soil compaction was measured with a penetrometer, the actual moisture content was determined by gravimetric method. The bulk density values of the regularly cultivated soil layer of 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths were defined from undisturbed soil samples. We established that after 3 years the application of the soil conditioner has positive effect on soil compaction and moisture status of the top layer in the reduced tillage system. We could not figure out this positive effect in the case of conventional tillage.

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Effect of Soil Covering on the Soil Enzyme Activity of Integrated Orchard
Published September 22, 2004
20-29

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matters (agrofoil and black polyethylene) on the activity of some enzymes (phosphatase, saccharase, urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) occuring in soil. Soil samples were taken from a cider apple plantation of the Fruit Producing Research and Advisory Kht Újfehért.... The enzyme activity was measured according to Krámer and Erdei (1959a), Kuprevič and Tsherbakova (1956), Kuprevič et al. (1966), Frankenberger and Johanson (1983), Mersi and Schinner (1991). Soil moisture content was by conventional (drying chamber) method measured during every sampling and enzyme activity was transpolated to absolute dry soil. Results were estimated by mathematical methods (variation analysis, correlation counting). Soil samples were taken by trials 5 times (in every two months) a year in the vegetation period from March to November.
By recording the monthly changes of the enzyme activity we have observed the following. The activity of the phosphatase was generally the highest in May and the lowest in November. Depending on the trials, high values were also measured in March and September. The activity of the saccharase was generally the highest in November and the lowest in June, but at the same time peaks even occured in May and September. The highest urease avtivity was measured in September and November, and the lowest activity in May and July, also depending on the trials. In the year 2000, after a deep point in March, the activity of the catalase was the highest in November or by certain trials in September. In 2001, the lowest activity was also measured in March, but the highest activity appeared in November in case of one-minute trial, and in May in consequence of two-minute trial. Finally the activity of dehydrogenase was the highest in November and the lowest in July apart from the model years.
There were essential differences in rainfall of the two experimental years which was reflected in the enzyme activities. There was a poor positive significant relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values in case of phosphatase, saccharase, urease (r=0,426; 0,480; 0,396) respectively. In case of catalase1 (r=0,518), catalase (r=0,556), dehydrogenase (r=0,559) we obtained a medium strong positive relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values. By evaluating the effect of different trials in case of every examined enzyme significantly higher values were detected in soils covered by agrofoil (a porous black polyethylene) than in soils covered by black polyethylene or in uncovered soils. Moreover, the soil covered by black polyethylene showed significantly higher enzyme activities (besides phosphatase) than the control soil. Thus soil-covering meant statistically significant advantages in enzyme activity as opposed to uncovered soil proved.

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The Effect of Soil Coverings on Soil Respiration in Sandy Soil
Published November 26, 2003
21-25

The purpose of our experiments is to study effect of different soil coverings (porous black polyethylene called agroszövet and black polyethylene) on CO2 production in sandy soil. The CO2 production was measured in our laboratory according to Witkamp (1966 cit. Szegi, 1979), after 5 days’ incubation period. Samples were taken off four times ...(March, May, July, September) in every year of the experiment. In May, July and September of 2000, the CO2 production was significantly higher in the control than in the treatment soil. With the exception of September, the value of CO2 production was significantly higher under black polyethylene than under agroszövet. In March and May of 2001, the soil under black polyethylene, and in July and September the control soil produced the greatest quantity of CO2. With the exception of July, significantly more CO2 was produced under black polyethylene than under agroszövet. To study the dynamic of CO2 production there was find a significantly higher value May and September of 2001 than 2000. Similarly significant higher CO2 production was detected in September than in the other months In average of two experimental years the difference between the produced CO2 under different coverings was occasionally. Explicit upward tendency in soil CO2 production was detected only in case of control soil. There was a medium (r=0,413) relationship observed between the moisture content and the CO2 producing ability of soil. To sum up the soil coverings had favourable effect on soil CO2 production very rearly, but they could help to conserve the moisture content of soil.

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Methodology adaptation and development to assess salt content dynamics and salt balance of soils under secondary salinization
Published June 1, 2021
199-206

The effect of irrigation with saline water (above 500 mg L-1) is considered a problem of small-scale farmers growing vegetable crops with high water demand in the hobby gardens characteristic of the Hungarian Great Plain. In order to simulate the circumstances of such hobby garden, we set up an experiment including five simple dr...ainage lysimeters irrigated with saline water in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF UD in 2019. We regularly measured the electric conductivity (EC) of the soil referring to its salt content and the soil moisture content with mobile sensors. Before and after the irrigation season, soil samples from the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) were taken for laboratory analysis and the soil salt balance (SB) was calculated. The actual salt balance (SBact) was calculated of the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) based on the salt content of the obtained soil samples. The theoretical salt balance (SBth) was calculated by the total soluble salt content of the irrigation water and leachates. During the irrigation season, we experienced fluctuating EC in the topsoil in close correlation with the soil moisture content. Based on the performed in-situ EC measurements, salts were leached from the upper soil layer resulting in a negative SB. Combining SBact and SBth of the soil columns of the lysimeters, we estimated the SB of the deeper (0.6-1.0 m) soil layer. We quantified 12% increase of the initial salt mass due to accumulation. We consider this methodology to be suitable for deeper understanding secondary salinization, which can contribute to mitigating its harmful effect. By repeating our measurements, we expect similar results proving that saline irrigation waters gained from the aquifers through drilled wells in Karcag are potentially suitable for irrigation if proper irrigation and soil management are applied.

 

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Impact assesment of soil conditioners on a high clay content soil
Published February 17, 2015
137-141

Our measurements were done in a soil conditioner experiment started in 2014 which was set in conventional tillage system at the Karcag Research Institute where a soil conditioner was used from 2010. Effect of two different soil conditioners on compaction, moisture content of the soil and on CO2-emission was studied. Measurements were... done after sowing of maize and millet, and on stubble after harvesting. It can be established that less degree of compaction was characteristic to the soil of the plots treated for several years with the soil conditioner during the vegetation period than in case of untreated plots. Higher CO2-emission values were observed on the plots treated for several years than on the control plots. This effect can’t be established in case of soil conditioners used for first time in this year.

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The Effect of Soil Coverings on Cellulose Decomposition Activity of Sandy Soil
Published November 26, 2003
15-20

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matter (agroszövet and black polyethylene) on actual (under field circumstances) and potential (under laboratory circumstances) cellulose decomposition activity. In our field research, the Unger-test was used, and in laboratory research, the Petkov-Markova method ...was applied. In the first year of the experiment (2000) actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered than in the uncovered soil both in spring and autumn. The difference between the two treatments was significant only in spring. In the spring of 2001 black polyethylene showed significantly the lowest, activity, while in autumn the agroszövet (a porous black polyethylene) showed significantly the highest activity. In the autumn of 2001 the soil covered by black polyethylene gave non-significant,and the soil covered by agroszövet gave a significant higher activity value than the control. Averaging the two experimental years (2000-2001), the actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered soils both in spring (with 30-39%) and in autumn (with 34-69%). Moreover, in autumn a significantly higher value was detected under agroszövet than in any other treatment. The difference between the effect of treatments was not significant. In 2000, the potential cellulose decomposition activity was the highest in soil covered by agroszövet in spring, but in autumn higher activity value was detected in every covered soil than in the control. In the spring of 2001, every covered soil showed a lower, but in autumn a higher, potential cellulose decomposition rate than the control. The activity decreased significantly 27 (agroszövet) and 45 (black polyethylene) percent in spring, and increased no- significantly 8 (agroszövet) and 4 (black polyethylene) percent in autumn. During the two experimental years, we observed on average lower potential cellulose decomposition activity (15-60%) in spring and a higher one (14-43%) in autumn. Neither was significant. The dynamic of potential cellulose decomposition activity averaging 2000 and 2001 showed a slight, the actual cellulose decomposition activity an explicit non-significant upward tendency. There was a strong (r=0,189) correlation obtained between the actual and potential cellulose decomposition activity of soil, and a medium-strong (r=0,673) relationship between the soil moisture content and actual cellulose decomposition activity.

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Soil – Environment – Sustainability
Published November 13, 2012
331-337

The future and life quality of human society depends primarily on the success of the sustainable use of natural resources: the geological strata–soil–water–biota–near surface atmosphere continuum. Soil is the most significant conditionally renewable natural resource in our Earth’s system, with three unique properties: multifunctionali...ty; fertility/ productivity; resilience. In the case of rational land use and precise soil management soil does not disappear, and its desirable „quality” does not decrease considerably, irreversibly and unavoidably. Its renewal, however, requires continuous care and permanent activities.
Consequently, the prevention, elimination or moderation of soil degradation processes and extreme hydrological situations (the two main factors limiting desirable soil multifunctionality) with rational land use and soil management are the key factors and priority tasks of sustainable development on each level and in each phase of the decisionmaking process.

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Study of the microbiological activity in the agrocenosis from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
73-77

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The seasonal variations of soil microorganisms depend on changes in the soil chemical properties and the microbiological processes of soil are determined in main by different cropping systems, soil management and season. Investigation of the microbiological properties of a haplic luvisol, under different cultivation conditions showed that anthropogenic factors such as fertilization and treatments with pesticides was favourable for certain microorganisms while others were inhibited by these factors. In order the quantitative occurence of microorganism was aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs (105–107 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) were followed by Actinomycetes, yeast and mould (103–106 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil), nitrogen fixing bacteria (102–105 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) and nitrifying bacteria (10-1–103 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil). The highest values of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs were found in cropland and undisturbed meadow of haplic luvisol. Actinomycetes are more developed in undisturbed soils than in the cultivated soils. The number of yeast and mould was high in the apricot tree orchard, and Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria were identified in a small number in all the soil variants studied. Among the total number of aerobic microorganisms, pH and humus content statistically proved relationship was established. Total number of yeast and mould depends on the proportion of 10.89% by moisture content and pH. The numerical presence of Azotobacter depends in a proportion of 9.6% by the ammonia nitrogen content and pH variations. The numerical presence of nitrifying bacteria depends in a proportion of 1.69% by the nitric nitrogen content and humus content variation.

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The effect of the plant density for the yield of the maize hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
50-61

In order to enchance the yield stability of maize, the effect of plant density on yields was studied on a typical meadow soil in Hajdúböszörmény between 2002-2004. In the plant density experiment, we used the method of Béla Győrffy. The plant densities applied therefore 20 to 100 thousand plants/ha by ten thousand scale. The application o...f fertilizer rates for the maize hibrids in every year were N: 110 P: 90 K: 120 kg/ha. We used a manual soiling-gun in the experiment. In every year we used plant protection techniques against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The harvest was done by hand. The facts were read by variancie analysis and linear regression analysis. The moisture and the temperatures were extreme in 2002, 2003, 2004. We have to mention defficiery of moisture in 2003 which is shown that the hot days number increased. After evaluating our findings we can conclude that most hybrids showed a significant correlation between increased plant density and the volume of yields. On the basis of the experiments we divided the hybrids into four groups: the first group included the hybrids suitable for increased plant density with a wide range of optimal density values; the second group included hybrids, which did not require high plant density, were capable of good individual performance and tended to grow several ears; the third group included flexible corn types, which grew longer ears in favourable years, thus yielded more; and the fourth group included the hybrids, which were sensitive to increased plant density and which showed a narrow range of optimal density values. Finally, plant density determines the yield; we have to consider optimal plant density intervals as well as optimal plant density, and we also have to place a high emphasis on the use of hybrid-specific technologies.

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The effect of sowing time on the yield and the variance of the seed moisture content a harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
39-49

Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly. ...2003 was drought. Neither the distribution, nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
Published April 23, 2014
19-25

The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was... divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

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Investigation of soils of stubbles of winter wheat and winter peas in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 3, 2016
95-99

The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat ...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.

We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.

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Impact of environmental changes resulting from different sowing dates on maize yield
Published February 25, 2014
99-104

Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.

In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.

The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.

In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).

The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.

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Microbiological preparations affecting the soil nutrient availability and growth of ryegrass in a pot experiment
Published March 11, 2014
49-53

The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.

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Examination the effects of different herbicides on the soil microorganisms of a calcareous chernozem
Published November 3, 2010
121-126

Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated: 
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.

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Effect of season and sowing time on the moisture loss dynamics and yield of maize
Published July 16, 2007
255-265

The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic chara...cteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.

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86
55
Effect of sowing technology on the yield and harvest grain moisture content of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes
Published February 18, 2016
17-22

From the aspect of the efficiency of maize production harvest grain moisture content shall be considered beside the amount of harvested grain yield. Hybrids with different genotypes and vegetation period length lose their moisture content different that is affected by row spacing and plant density – among agrotechnical production factors – ...depending on the given crop year. In the present research work three crop years with different weather conditions were studied (2013, 2014, and 2015). The small-plot field experiment was set up at the Látókép Field Research Centre of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences with four replications on a chernozem soil type. The effect of three factors was analysed in the experiment on yield amount and its moisture content. Factors were row spacing (45 and 76 cm), plant density (50, 70 and 90 thousand plants ha-1), while hybrids were of very early (Sarolta: FAO 290), early (DKC 4014: FAO 320, P 9175: FAO 330, P 9494: FAO 390) and medium (SY Afinity: FAO 470) ripening.

In the crop year of 2013 the highest yield was produced – regarding the average of the hybrids – by the application of a row spacing of 45 cm (4.5%, 673 kg ha-1), however there was no significant difference between the yield of the populations of different row spacings. Significant difference (14.9%, 1751 kg ha-1; 6.3%, 583 kg ha-1) could be found in case of yield between different row spacing applications in 2014 and 2015. The effect of insufficiently distributed low amount of precipitation and lasting heat days in 2015 could be revealed in yield amounts and harvest grain yield moisture content results that were lower than in the previous years. In 2015 grain yield moisture content varied between 10.3 and 13.9% in case of a row spacing of 45 cm, while by 76 cm between 11.0 and 13.9%.

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75
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Correlation between sowing time of maize hybrids, yield and seed moisture content at harvest on chernozem soil
Published May 27, 2001
32-41

In this paper, we analysed the results of maize sowing time experiments conducted by the Department of Crop Sciences and Applied Ecology of the University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Centre, during the period from 1997-1999. We made the experiments at the experimental garden of DE ATC, on a chernozem soil with lime deposits.
In 1997, w...e examined five hybrids, in 1998 six hybrids, and in 1999 three hybrids, with three sowing times. Sowing times were early (10. Apr. and 08. Apr.), optimal (25. Apr. and 28. Apr.) and late (15. May and 17. May). 
We examined the following standards: yield, seed moisture content at harvest, thousand kernel mass, duration of flowering, emergence time and profitability.
In 1977, the emergence times, in order of sowing, were: 24, 12 and 9 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the five hybrids: in the early sowing time (10. Apr.) 11,81 t/ha, in the optimal sowing time (25. Apr.) 11,67 t/ha, and in the late sowing time (15. May) 12,9 t/ha. The seed moisture content of the five hybrids at harvest was 8% less in early sowing time, than in the late sowing time. The thousand kernel mass was the biggest in late sowing time, but we could not prove any significant connection attributable to the effect of sowing time. We examined
profitability, too. Of the five hybrids, four attained the greatest profit with the early sowing time in 1997.
In 1998, the emergence times, in the order of sowing, were: 21, 10 and 11 days. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the six hybrids: 08. Apr. 10,34 t/ha, 25. Apr. 11,02 t/ha, 15. May 11,52 t/ha. There were no significant differences between yields in 1998. The seed moisture content of the six hybrids at harvest was 7% less for the early sowing time, than for the late sowing time. In 1998, the profits were greatest for the
early and traditional sowing times.
In 1999, the numbers of days from sowing to emergence were 18, 9 and 9 days, in the order of sowing times. Yields of the sowing times were the following, in mean, for the three hybrids: 13,25  t/ha, 12,51 t/ha and 12,34 t/ha, in the order of sowing times. The seed moisture content of maizes at harvest was 6% less with an early sowing time in the mean of all hybrids. In 1999, hybrid maizes gave big profits with early sowing times.
Summing up the results of the three years, we can conclude that we get a significant yield increase and reduced seed moisture content at harvest if we apply the early sowing time, which can considerably increase the efficiency of maize cultivation. 

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The Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Density on the Yield of MaizeHybrids
Published December 6, 2005
95-104

The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200...3 was drought. Neither the distribution nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.

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36
68
Opportunities of delineating inland waters and soil moisture with remote sensed data
Published May 16, 2012
95-98

The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sens...ing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.

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Evolution of some components of agroecosystems productivity from Vinga Plain in water stress situations
Published October 5, 2010
174-179

The researches are inscribed on line of substantiation of durable agricultural system, having main objective the prominence of
quantitative and qualitative modifications made on agro-system level under the effect of no-tillage system for wheat, maize and soybeans.
The experimental field is placed on a cambium chernozem, with a medium cont...ent of clay, dominant in the Prodagro West Arad agrocentre
and representative for a large surface in the Banat-Crisana Plain.
The passing to no-till system change the structure of technological elements, through less soil works, so the impact on agro-system is
different comparing with conventional tillage, first less the intervention pressure on agro-system ant secondly appears new interactions, new
equilibriums and disequilibriums.
Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly (by taking soil samples and laboratory determinations) for
the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work
of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil.

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