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Experiments for Isolating and Culturing Soil-borne Mycobacteria (Contemporary Publication)
Published December 10, 2002

On grounds of the several thousand tests performed in the field of this topic, the following conclusions may be arrived at:
1. The informations available and the experimental data on soil mycobacteria are very incomplete.
2. Of the 77 strains isolated from similar soil types so far, and adaptable for pure basic culture, 47 strains are con...fusingly similar, from morphological aspects, to the mycobacteria isolated from clinical material.
3. The apparently homogeneous cultures isolated from the soil are generally co-infected and, therefore, the morphological, biochemical, and other physiological characteristics of the isolated strains can be studied only on base cultures after purification.
4. For the isolation of the soil mycobacteria experiments qualified hitherto as most suitable processes the 4 or 1 per cent NaOH neutralized with H2SO4, and the 1 per cent NaOH or 1 per cent Na3PO4 treatments, on Gottsacker agar medium with plate or top pouring, at a temperature of 29 to 37 C°, in a soil suspension sequence of 1:500 to 1:5000 final dilution.
5. The Ziehl-Nielsen staining of the isolated mycobacteria composed to sub-cultures is best performed by heating with an infra red radiator from above, instead of the gas flame used so far to heat from below.
The repetition of the biochemical test of the hitherto isolated 77 purified strains is under progress, and will be reported on in our next scientific publication.

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Effect of Soil Covering on the Soil Enzyme Activity of Integrated Orchard
Published September 22, 2004

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matters (agrofoil and black polyethylene) on the activity of some enzymes (phosphatase, saccharase, urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) occuring in soil. Soil samples were taken from a cider apple plantation of the Fruit Producing Research and Advisory Kht Újfehért.... The enzyme activity was measured according to Krámer and Erdei (1959a), Kuprevič and Tsherbakova (1956), Kuprevič et al. (1966), Frankenberger and Johanson (1983), Mersi and Schinner (1991). Soil moisture content was by conventional (drying chamber) method measured during every sampling and enzyme activity was transpolated to absolute dry soil. Results were estimated by mathematical methods (variation analysis, correlation counting). Soil samples were taken by trials 5 times (in every two months) a year in the vegetation period from March to November.
By recording the monthly changes of the enzyme activity we have observed the following. The activity of the phosphatase was generally the highest in May and the lowest in November. Depending on the trials, high values were also measured in March and September. The activity of the saccharase was generally the highest in November and the lowest in June, but at the same time peaks even occured in May and September. The highest urease avtivity was measured in September and November, and the lowest activity in May and July, also depending on the trials. In the year 2000, after a deep point in March, the activity of the catalase was the highest in November or by certain trials in September. In 2001, the lowest activity was also measured in March, but the highest activity appeared in November in case of one-minute trial, and in May in consequence of two-minute trial. Finally the activity of dehydrogenase was the highest in November and the lowest in July apart from the model years.
There were essential differences in rainfall of the two experimental years which was reflected in the enzyme activities. There was a poor positive significant relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values in case of phosphatase, saccharase, urease (r=0,426; 0,480; 0,396) respectively. In case of catalase1 (r=0,518), catalase (r=0,556), dehydrogenase (r=0,559) we obtained a medium strong positive relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values. By evaluating the effect of different trials in case of every examined enzyme significantly higher values were detected in soils covered by agrofoil (a porous black polyethylene) than in soils covered by black polyethylene or in uncovered soils. Moreover, the soil covered by black polyethylene showed significantly higher enzyme activities (besides phosphatase) than the control soil. Thus soil-covering meant statistically significant advantages in enzyme activity as opposed to uncovered soil proved.

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