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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
Published March 11, 2014
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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Optimization of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer parameter’s to measuring arsenic and selenium
Published December 16, 2012
59-64

In the last decades an increased interest has been evolved about arsenic and selenium. The aim is to understand the environmental, agricultural and biological role of the these elements. In case of arsenic the mayor reasons are the relatively high concentration of arsenic in marine biota (mg kg-1) and the arsenic contaminated drinkin...g waterbases of some Asian countries besides Hungary. The toxicity of higher level selenium content is also known, nevertheless selenium is essential for some biological functions. Considering its esssentiality, in our country the insufficient selenium intake rate couse lack of selenium. Measuring the concentrations of these elements are cruital but not satisfactory information, but the speciation, that is the form of an element presented in a sample is also required. 
In both cases the most suitable method to determine concentration is the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrimetry. My objective was to optimase the changeable parameters of the ICP-MS for reaching the lowest (the best) detection limit. For this porpuse I have investigated the effect of parameter change on nett signal intensity and relative signal intensity. With the optimased parameter settings the limit of detection for arsenic and selenium were determined, which are 0,032 ng cm-3 for arsenic, and 0,097 ng cm-3 for
selenium.

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Parameter optimization of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for measuring arsenic and selenium
Published November 20, 2011
81-85

In the last decades, an increased interest has evolved in arsenic and selenium. The aim is to understand the environmental, agricultural and biological roles of these elements. In the case of arsenic, the major reasons are the relatively high concentration of arsenic in marine biota (mg kg-1) and the arsenic contaminated drinking wat...er bases of some Asian countries, as well as Hungary. The toxicity of higher level selenium content is also known; nevertheless, selenium is essential for several biological functions. Considering its essentialness, in our country, the insufficient selenium intake rate causes a lack of selenium. Measuring the concentrations of these elements provides crucial, but unsatisfactory information, as the speciation, i.e. the form of an element presented in a sample is also required.
In both cases, the most suitable method to determine concentration is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our objective was to optimize the variable parameters of the ICP-MS to attain the lowest (the best) detection limit. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of parameter change on net signal intensity and relative signal intensity. With the optimized parameter settings, the limits of detection for arsenic and selenium were determined, which are 0,032 ng dm-3 for arsenic, and 0,097 ng dm-3 for selenium. 

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The effects of the nanoselenium supplementation to the production parameters and the selenium retention of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)
Published March 20, 2014
43-48

The selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant effect, constituent of many enzymes, natural component of the body of the animals. The addition to the fish feed as micro element supplementation is generally accepted. Numerous animal experiments veryfied, that the antioxidant effect of the nanoselenium is higher than other selenium f...orms. But no much information is available of the usuage at fish.

In the experiment were investigated the effects of the nanoselenium supplementation of a commercial fish feed were investigated to the production parameters and the body tissue composition. The correlation between the accumulated selenium content of the body and the treatment, and the feed conversation was also statistically analyzed beside the production parameters. Furthermore we were curious, if can be toxic the nanoselenium in higher doses.

The experimental stock was placed into 12 plastic tanks (each 70 l water vol.) in a recirculation system for larval rearing. The salinity and the water temperature was constant during the 8 week long experiment. The feeding was ad libitum, 4 times a day. Beside the control five (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5 mg Se kg-1) duplicated treatment were set.

According to the results, from the production parameters only at the value of FCR and the survival was found significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. However strong correlation (r=0.752–0.780, p<0.01) was determined between the treatment and the accumulated selenium levels. To analyzed the free fatty acid contentof the fish, we realized, that the selenium uptake significanly enhanced this level at all treatments. The greatest change was found in case of the type n-3 fatty acids.

Established by the results, the higher intake than 0.5 mg Se kg-1 was not changed significantly the production parameters, nevertheless to increase the selenium content of commercial feeds to 1.5 mg Se kg-1 could be rewarding on the rearing of red drum.

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The importance of selenium in the living world and in the scientific research
Published July 16, 2007
278-286

Presently, selenium (Se) is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Directly or indirectly, selenium deficiency can play a role in the development of many diseases. On the other hand, the concentration range in which selenium is essential is narrow; there is a narrow gap between neces...sary and toxic content in dietary intake. In this context, selenium contamination poses a further health risk for people if they live near the industrial areas and mining activity.
In this paper, we comprehensively introduce the very important trace element selenium. We studied the base parameters, deposit, analytic and deficiencies, problem of contamination and also the solution of contamination problems of selenium.

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Correlations study between the selenium content of wheat grass (Triticum aestivum L.) and wheat seeds grown on different soil types
Published December 15, 2010
117-121

In the course of the research we determined selenium and dry-matter content of 35 wheat grasses and 35 wheat seeds. The selenium content of the preparation plant samples was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (ʎexcitation=380 nm, ʎemission=519 nm) of the resulted piaz-selenol complex. It was established that b...etween the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p=0.05 level which indicates a medium close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium close correlation between selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p=0.02 level.

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The synthesis of selenium nаnоpаrtiсle (SeNPs) – Review
Published May 23, 2019
5-8

Selenium is an important dietary miсrоnutriеnt required for the nоrmаl physiоlоgy and mеtаbоlism of humans and аnimаls. The biоlоgicаl prоperties оf selenium nаnо pаrticle depend оn their size аnd fоrms. Sеlenium nаnоpаrticle (SeNPs) аttrасts еvеn mоrе аttеntiоn, thanks to its high biоаvаilаbility аnd m...uсh lоwеr tохiсity thаn inоrgаniс аnd оrgаniс fоrms. In this review, I summаrized the infоrmаtiоn аnd wаys оf prоductiоn оf selenium nаnоpаrticle. SeNPs hаve been prоduced in chemicаl, physicаl, аnd biоlоgicаl wаys. In recent years, biоlоgicаl wаys hаve been especially important in the prоductiоn оf selenium nanoparticles.

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Effect of vitamin e and selenium supplementation on the antioxidant content of milk and dairy products in dairy cows
Published November 20, 2011
9-12

In 2007, the aim of the Ányos Jedlik program and the call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants - in this case: vitamin E and seleniu...m – used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an increased level of vitamin E and selenium content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E and selenium as feedadditives can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E and selenium in the milk and also in the diary products.

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Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken liver
Published December 16, 2012
9-13

The aims of the present study were to optimize a two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to chicken liver proteome and to determine the changes of protein expression caused by selenium. Twelve broiler chicken were used in this experiment. The selenium intake was 0,2 mg/kg in the control group (6 chicken) and 4,25 mg/kg in the ...experimental group (6 chicken). Using the optimized proteomic approach, we have succesfully separated 747 proteins in the experimental group and 741 proteins in the control group. We found six proteins, wich expressed only in the samples of experimental group. Further investigations need to determine these six proteins with mass spectrometry (MS) and look for the correlation between the physiological effects of selenium and the expression of these proteins.

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The toxicity of different selenium forms and compounds – Review
Published March 5, 2015
33-38

Selenium (Se) is an unusual metalloid of considerable interest from both a toxicological and a nutritional perspective, with a very narrow safe range of intake. Although there are many reports about its detoxification properties, toxicity aspects of it have also been tracked for several decades. Lots of studies demonstrated that low Se is an ef...ficacious avail whereas high Se can induce toxicity and the significant toxicity of selenium emphasizes the need to assess the health risk of various selenocompounds as nutritional supplements. The toxicity of different forms and compounds of selenium is also summarized in this review.

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Effect of Selenium Supplementation on in vitro Radish and Green Pepper Seedlings Germination
Published December 6, 2005
149-155

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, the question of essentiali...ty of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. Therefore Raphanus sativus (Se accumulator) and Capsicum annuum (non Se accumulator) were treated with 0-200 mg/l natrium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/l) concentration natrium-selenate increased the fitomass and total antioxodant capacity in seedlings.

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Definition antioxidant activity of selenium-enriched food sprout, as well as their microbiological analysis
Published March 20, 2013
25-30

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched food sprouts, where the antioxidant capacity was analysed, we also determined their microbiological status. We took into account the fact, we choose micronutrients to our treatment, that selenium can be delivered to the body by a small amount with the most widely consumed food.

We focused during our research to determine that the increasing concentrations of selenium treatment, in which we used sprouts, knowing fully well that it has an impact on aboriginal antioxidant capacity of sprouts, which is mainly due to high vitamin content of sprouts.

Furthermore, we think it is important to make microbiological analysis, because germination conditions, for example temperature, pH, all this will create an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms. So we had goal to determine, how the used selenium concentration affect the total plate count, coliform bacteria count and Staphylococcus aureus count of sprouts.

We determined the aboriginal water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprout with the PHOTOCHEM chemiluminometer and we applied pour plate technique for the mapping of the mycrobiological state of sprouts.

Experimental results are evaluated, we state that increasing concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment, is primarily water-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprouts was affected. The water-soluble antioxidant capacity of wheat sprout was much higher than the measured values in pea sprout, this may be linked to what we measured. That is much higher ascorbic acid content in case of wheat sprout, which is well known as one of the most important antioxidant properties compounds of wheat sprout.

We conclude from the results of the microbiological, that the highest concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment has a relative significant anti-microbial effect in case of wheat sprouts. Coliform and total plate count showed no clear decreasing tendency, although the values of treatments in both cases obtained were below the control values.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published December 16, 2012
31-34

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.
After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Selenium-speciation experiments from soil samples by accept of ionchromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) method
Published May 23, 2006
106-111

In these days, selenium is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Selenium deficiency can play a role in the contraction of many diseases (e.g. cancer, heart diseases, etc.) and in the aggravation of their clinical aspect directly or indirectly. In this paper, we study the soil sampl...es of an outdoor experiment for the conversion of the inorganic selenium salt that was spread out in different doses. The danger of the wash-out effect was also investigated. Our experiments showed, that most of the inorganic selenite transforms to selenate form during the years, and in this selenate form it moves to the deeper layers of soil.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published March 24, 2015
49-52

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.

After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Utilization and examination of red, elemental selenium nano spheres, produced by fermentation technology, in animal tests
Published November 13, 2012
245-247

In our experiments we tested the toxicity of Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® compared with other organic and inorganic selenium forms, in case of a subakut animal test. We produced the Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® by probiotic lactic acid bacteria in our laboratory. (Prokisch et al., 2010; Eszenyi et al., 2011). We mixed the inorganic selenium forms..., selenite and selenate, the organic form, Sel-Plex® and our products, Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® into the standard food of laboratory mice and we fed them for two consecutive weeks. After the extermination we observed mortality, the change of body mass,and measured the blood antioxidant capacity with FRAP method.

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Determination of the validation parameters of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (iCP-mS): response curve linearity in the case of arsenic and selenium
Published July 31, 2012
67-71

In the field of elemental analysis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have the best sensitivity that means the lowest limit of detection, subsequently their applicability for the detection of essential and toxic elements in foods and foodstuffs is prominent. For the most elements could be measured the detection limit is betw...een μg kg-1 (ppb) and ng kg-1 (ppt) e.g. for arsenic and selenium.

Considering an analytical task (sample type, analytes and their concentration, pretreatment procedure etc.) the applicability of an analytical method is determined by its performance characteristics. The purpose of validation is to ensure that the method would be used fulfills the requirements of the given task. In this article we describes one of the performance characteristics, the linearity, and the whole validation procedure aims measurement of arsenic and selenium in foodstuffs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Thermo XSeries I.); but because of the limited number of pages the results are demonstrated only for arsenic.

The linearity of calibration was evaluated in three concentration ranges (0.1–1 μg l-1; 1–10 μg l-1; 10–50 μg l-1), with nine line-fit possibilities (without weighting, weighting with absolute or relative deviation; with or without forcing the curve through blank or origin) and different methods (graphical examination, correlation coefficient, analysis of variance).

The best method to ensure the linearity of correspondence between signal and concentration was the ANOVA test. In view of calibrations it was found that the range of 10–50 μg l-1 could be regarded as linear with four line-fit possibilities, and was non-linear between 0.1–1 μg l-1 and 1–10 μg l-1.

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Application of the Collision Cell (CCT) in the ICP-MS Analytical System
Published December 6, 2005
120-125

Our laboratory has seen a sharp rise in the number of requests for the analysis of smaller and smaller concentrations of elements from foods, plants, soil, organic fertiliser, irrigation and ground water, sewage, sewage sludge, raw material of food, as well as human and animal origin samples. From the above elements the inductively coupled plas...ma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. Our method of analysis is to use our ICP-MS instrument, together with a ICP-MS with Collision Cell Technology (CCT). The CCT method has better detection limit, with 1-3 magnitudes, compared to the normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT has better detection limits mainly for the following elements in the periodical system: analysis of arsenic, selenium, germanium, vanadium and chromium. Additionally a collision cell can be applied for the analysis of silicium, sulphur, zink, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium in smaller concentrations.

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Assessment and comparison of selenium-enriched maize with sodium selenite and sodium selenate
Published February 18, 2016
11-15

Selenium is an element of environmental interest owing to the narrow range between its nutritionally required and toxic concentrations in many organisms. Its mobility and bioavailability differ greatly depending on individual Se species. In this regard, in present study, the uptake and distribution of Se, the changes in Se content, and the effe...cts of different concentration of Se in two forms of sodium selenite and sodium selenate on maize plants were measured in nutrient solution experiments to clarify their response to the two forms of Se. The results revealed that the Se content in shoots and roots of maize plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. Two Se forms behaved differently and the effects of toxic damage in samples which had been treated with selenite were much more than in the selenate treatments.

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