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Analysis of the genetic origin of European hare (Lepus europaeus) (technical literature review)
Published March 20, 2014

Fossil datas showed that the lagomorphs appeared in Asia during the later Eocene and leporids separated from ochotonids during the Oligocen or Upper Eocene. During the Pleistocene, climatic changes induced major shifts in species distributions, forcing them to refugia.
In Europe, the continuous oscillations led to the production of greater s...ubspecific and specific diversity in the southern peninsulas (Iberia, Italy, Balkan) which were the main refugial areas for other species as well. Evolution, phylogeny and population genetics of the Lagomorpha species are still poorly known and the taxonomic distinction is still unclear for some species. Conservation genetics is the discipline which use genetic techniques and analysis methods to preserve species and dynamics. Usually it is working together with population genetics what role is to investigate the origin, the maintenance, the organization and the causes of genetic variation between natural populations. In the present study I reviewed the results of origin and phylogenetic studies of Brown hare populations from the last decades.

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The effect of collecting area on the element content of Hungarian acacia honeys
Published September 5, 2018

Six macroelements and twelve microelements were identified in thirty-six Hungarian acacia honeys collected from ten counties by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One-Way ANOVA (LSD and Dunnett T3 test) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to ...determine the statistically verified differences among the honey samples with different geographical origin.

Significant differences were established among the samples from different counties in Na, P, S, Fe, Ni, Cu and Sr concentrations. Based on the macroelement content of honeys, the separation of samples with different geographical origin was not successful because the percent of correctly categorised cases was only 64.9%. However, examining the As, B, Ba, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Sr concentration, the separation of different groups was convincing since the percent of correctly classified cases was 97.2%. Thus, the examination of microelement concentration may be able to determine the geographical origin of acacia honeys.

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Some aspects of food safety from animal origin
Published November 13, 2012

The relationship between the civilisation illnesses and incorrect nutrition can be considered as demonstrated. The functional foods having one or several nutritional- biological advantage can contribute to the healthy nutrition and to improving the quality of life. Beside the healthy nutrition it is an another important requirement that the foo...d does not contain pathogens or substances of chemical and biological origin namely it has to be safe. 
In this publication the foods of animal origin were investigated in the point of view of public health hazards arising during their production and processing.
The contamination and infection of food raw materials, the consequence of chemical substances getting in or developing it the food, the judgement of food deviring from genetically modified or cloned animals are discussed.

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Application of microsatellite fingerprints for pedigree analysis of Hungaricum grapevine varieties
Published November 15, 2007

the Carpathian Basin were involved into our examination, which aimed at genotyping their accessions. DNA fingerprints of 101 varieties were determined with 6 microsatellite markers till 2005, resulting in successful discrimination of the accessions. Based on these results for pedigree determination, even more cultivars and primers were involved... into the analyses. For studying the origin of Csabagyöngye and for proving the parent-progeny relations of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály, 19 microsatellite markers were applied, while 11 were selected for tracing the origin of Királyleányka. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated with cluster analysis and demonstrated by dendrogram, proving that the varieties can be discriminated from each other based on the microsatellite allele sizes. Pedigree of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály has been confirmed by microsatellite allele size results, searching for the parents of Csabagyöngye and Királyleányka is in progress, since the molecular-marker based pedigree does not correspond with the putative origin of these cultivars. Our results excluded progeny-parent relationships in the
Csabagyöngye-Bronnerstraube-Muscat ottonel (Ottonel muskotály) and the Királyleányka-Kövérszőlő combinations. 

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How does the S-locus determining self-incompatibility in stone fruits work in self-compatible peach?
Published September 14, 2005

The majority of stone fruit species are self-incompatible, a feature that is determined by a specific recognition mechanism between the S-ribonuclease enzymes residing in the pistils and the F-box proteins expressed in the pollen tubes. Failure in the function of any component of this bipartite system resulted in self-compatibility (SC) in many... cultivars of Prunus species. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) is the only species in the Prunoideae subfamily that is traditionally known to be self-compatible, but its molecular background is completely unknown. Isoelectric focusing and S-gene specific PCR revealed that SC is not due to functional inability of pistil ribonucleases. We hypothesize that SC may be a consequence of a kind of pollen-part mutation or the action of one or more currently unknown modifier gene(s). Only two S-alleles were identified in a set of peach genotypes of various origin and phenotypes in contrast to the 17–30 alleles described in self-incompatible fruit trees. Most important commercial cultivars carry the same S-allele and are in a homozygote state. This indicates the common origin of these cultivars and also the consequence of self-fertilization. According to the available information, this is the first report to elucidate the role of S-locus in the fertilization process of peach. 

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Consumption tendencies of foods of animal origin in Hungary
Published September 2, 2009

One of the most important indices of the population's food consumption are the quantities of the consumed foods expressed in a natural measure. In the course of my examination from the 1980 years I examined how our dietary habits changed. I was able to demonstrate it by the time series examination well, in which years and in a what kind of meas...ure these consumer changes occurred. The trend analysis was in it onto my help, that let me be allowed to depict his beat as the changes of the food consumption visual.
In his totality the Hungarian population nutritional and from his consumer customs we may relate that the present nourishment increases it unambiguous the diet pendant the risk of illnesses, furthers their development, aggravates their effect, and contributes to the population's adverse health conditions powerful.
It was over in some years, in a decade on a unfortunate manner, we lost the natural instinct of the selection of the food in a considerable part. Our diet fundamental the narrower and the customs of wider environment, his rules, the social values, beliefs define it. Because of this to feed it is necessary to study it.
The changed and the health-conscious nourishment would be  important for him herding back into a upturned dietary habit correct bed with a wide circle recognizing him with the population, his role could be big for the healthy, or functional foods. The nourishment gives his pleasure likewise while we take over healthy foods.
The recognition of the changes of the demand and accompanying him with attention could be the domestic food producers' fundamental interests. The consumer types and the market segments should be mapped, that they suitable marketing a strategy can be aimed at it, and into the direction of the healthy nutrition to push away, and would be need onto an efficient informative campaign, onto an advertisement message formulated well, onto the making aware of this, that let the advertisement supply an educational function in one. 

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The situation of the Hungarian apricot farming and its developmental tendencies
Published April 8, 2014

The EC has declared „gönci magyar kajszi” as a product of specific origin with geographicald enomination. The „pálinka”isregistered Hungarian productin the EU. The micro-region of apricot production, named Gönc, has the privilege to utilize the great potential for rural development by its apricot production. To determine the developm...ent potential connected to apricot, needs through investigations on apricot production.This paper investigate apricot production at global, European and national levels. At national level each key aspects of apricot production have been analized. The final conclusions referring to Gönc micro-regionare: Northern Hungary region has got the biggest apricot area(within that Gönc has got outstanding role). The share of apricot cultivars of gönci origin ”has got overwhelming role in the Hungarian Cultivar assortment, the living tradition of production in this micro-region makes it possible, that gönci apricot will contribute to the overall socio-economic development in the region to a remarkable extend.

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History of origin and development of replacement of plants crop rotations is in world agriculture
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In practice of world agriculture a long ago the known problem of decline of harvests of agricultural cultures at their permanent growing, scientific explanation of this phenomenon became possible only with appearance of natural sciences. At first the declines of harvests bound to the toxic action of root excretions cultures on her repeated sowing, with development of humus theory of feed of plants of diminishing of harvests at the permanent sowing began to explain impoverishment of soil on a humus.

During a few centuries the known farmers development the looks in relation to forming of scientific bases of construction of replacement of plants crop rotations in the world systems of agriculture, set history of their development and improvement. The analysis of influence of possibility of optimal satiation of replacement of plants crop rotations is conducted by agricultural cultures on the level of fertility of soil, water and nourishing modes and their productivity. For the terms of the insufficient moistening a positive action is marked black pair on the improvement of the water mode of soil in crop rotations.

In historiography the problem of introduction and mastering of replacement of plants crop rotations for the decision of scientific and practical tasks of agricultural production is represented in many-sided aspects, worked out and the recommended replacement of plants crop rotations that are base on zonal principle of development of world agriculture that passed the protracted term of test and counted on various specialization of economies. But for today development of scientific and technical progress requires intensification of agricultural production with the use of intensive crop rotations and growing of high-performance cultures.

Hereupon there was a necessity of realization of analysis of the systems of historical value of scientifically-practical knowledge about development and improvement of replacement of plants crop rotations, as it gives an opportunity to work out to recommending a production with the use of the most effective elements of the past on modern agrarian business and allows to forecast them on the future.

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Application of the Collision Cell (CCT) in the ICP-MS Analytical System
Published December 6, 2005

Our laboratory has seen a sharp rise in the number of requests for the analysis of smaller and smaller concentrations of elements from foods, plants, soil, organic fertiliser, irrigation and ground water, sewage, sewage sludge, raw material of food, as well as human and animal origin samples. From the above elements the inductively coupled mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. Our method of analysis is to use our ICP-MS instrument, together with a ICP-MS with Collision Cell Technology (CCT). The CCT method has better detection limit, with 1-3 magnitudes, compared to the normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT has better detection limits mainly for the following elements in the periodical system: analysis of arsenic, selenium, germanium, vanadium and chromium. Additionally a collision cell can be applied for the analysis of silicium, sulphur, zink, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium in smaller concentrations.

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Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Published October 24, 2016

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

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Effect of using antioxidants as feed additives in the diet of dairy cows on the vitamin E and lycopene content of milk
Published December 1, 2010

In 2007, the aim of an Ányos Jedlik program and call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants – in this case: vitamin E and lycopene ... used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an
increased level of vitamin E and lycopene content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E as feed-additive can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E in the milk. The use of lycopene as feedadditive also gave good results. At the beginning of the experiment, the lycopene content of the milk was below the detection limit, while in the post-feeding milk samples the lycopene became detectable. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that further experiments and analyses are needed regarding the quality of food of animal origin and animal health.

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Origin, history and utilization possibilities of Carpathian Braunvieh at Hungary
Published March 20, 2014

The Carpathian Braunvieh was established by the cross-breeding of Braunvieh and the small dun mountain breeds of the Carpathian basin. It has been breeding in Hungary about 100 years before and still living in Transcarpathia and Transylvania, but only in very mixed populations. Since it was a characteristic native cattle breed of the country, i...t should be retain for future generations and re-establish in Hungary. Our primary aim is to preserve the breed’s genetic resources and - if appropriate - to acclaim it as an indigenous breed. If there are no longer residuals of the old type Carpathian Braunvieh, it is still worth to preserve as a local variety, because of its many favourable features. Above all, it’s our duty to maintain the breed, because neither Transcarpathia nor Transylvania has a breeding programme for it.

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Examinations connected with productive life in Hungarian Holstein Friesian populations
Published November 15, 2007

In Hungary, an intensive dairy population has developed in the last few decades as the result of upgrading to Holstein-Friesian. Intensive milk production, adjusted with housing and feeding, unfavorably affected secondary traits. The number of days between two calvings has increased remarkably and productive lifetime has decreased drastically. ...In the interest of profitable milk production, it is important that cows should be able to stay in the herd as long as possible, in order to have great lifetime productivity.
The aim of this paper was to compare the production and pedigree of cows with eight or more lactations to cows which were culled after their first lactation.
It can be stated that cows with longer herd lives produced more milk in their first lactation than those which were culled after their first lactation. When analyzing the pedigree effect of sires, this could not be proven, although some bulls, mainly of Hungarian origin, appeared at a higher frequency. In the analysis of the effect of dams, it was found that many of the offspring of the cows with longer herd lives had similarly great lifetime productivity. Correlation between herdlife and milk production quantity traits was found to be mild or stronger (r>0,60), while according to our analysis, there is no correlation between herdlife and milk production quality traits.

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Challenges in the mangalitsa sector – present and future
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Hungarian mangalitza pig sector has experienced numerous structural changes in the past few decades. The increased demand in the foreign markets for the mangalitza pork, changes in the domestic consumer perceptions have increase the number of sows and breeders. After the European Union’s accession started a significant growth in the sector, which was due to the target programme from the year of 2005 for the keeping of animals representing high genetic value, as the breed is indigenous. From 2008 continuous decline can be observed. The main reason for the decrease was the drastic growth of feed costs because of the drought damage in 2007, and the global economic crisis. Since 2010, a further period of supports has been in place, it extands the willingness to keep mangalitza pigs and the number of sows continuously increasing. On the basis of the average farm size (58 sows/farm) in 2011 it can be stated, that after our EU’s accession the medium-sized farms became stronger. To evaluate the geographic concentration of the mangalitza livestock it was analysed the data of sow number among the years of 2000 and 2011. The geographic concentration of mangalitza stock has a medium value over each year under the survey period, except the years of 2004–2007, when the values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) have low degrees. Due to the subvention period of indigenous breeds it was established more mangalitza farms in different parts of Hungary. Despite of the growth since 2000, numerous problems are in the segment. The aim of the study is to find out the sectoral problems, which are completed with the objectives tree and draw up the main activities to solve the problems. After estimating the SWOT-matrix according to the methodology of the strategic analysis and the discussions with the secretary of National Association of Mangalitza Breeders is prepared the sectoral problem- and objectives tree. The core problem of the mangalitza sector is that the origin of mangalitza products are not certified in the domestic markets. The reason of it is that the breeders don’t request the certificates of fattening pigs, so it can appear not real mangalitza product on the markets as mangalitza. To solve the problems it is drawn up different suggestions in the objectives tree. This analysis is an useful tool for the decision makers in the mangalitza sector to evolve strategic plans on behalf of the efficient cooperations among chain actors.

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Evaluation of Origin and Conformation of Excellent Cows with Long Productive Lives
Published December 6, 2005

In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs ...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.

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Examination of microsatellite markers of Dorper sheep breed
Published March 23, 2016

Number of not woolly and molty sheep exceeds 60 million throughout the world. Their numbers and their importance is growing, still they have appeared in the past two decades all over in North-America, Australia, New-Zealand and also in Europe. The South African Dorper has been a pioneer among them in Hungary. It was introduced in 2006 in the co...untry. The Dorper sheep is the second largest breed in South Africa, which was developed from the crossing of Dorset Horn and the Blackhead Persian. The aim of the EU Member States in terms of this specific breed is increasing the small populations, improving the productive qualities, in addition to this avoiding inbreeding. However, finding appropriate breeding stock is difficult due to the small size of available populations and also to the suspected common of origin. With the help of various molecular genetic methods we could get a total view of the genetic background of these flocks. Nowadays the most commonly known and used genetic markers are microsatellites, because their applications give fast, accurate and easily reproducible results. There is no specific descriptive information on the genetic background of Dorper populations in the various EU countries , also regarding diversity between populations. Therefore in our work we want to optimize the conditions of applicability of 31 selected microsatellite reactions as a first step of mapping the entire genetic background of the different EU Dorper populations.

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Survey on energetic short rotation forestry systems – Possibilities of spatial development and job creation
Published December 22, 2010

Both the European and the Hungarian rural areas suffer multi dimensional problems. Beside infrastructural under development the most important difficulty is employment. Unemployment is significant in the rural areas, while other structural characteristics like education, profession, work circumstances and seasonality worsen this unfavourable si...tuation. It can be stated that the challenge with the highest priority in rural and spatial
development is to create jobs and to strengthen local employment. The authors examine the job generating possibilities of energetic biomass of agricultural origin in a structural point of view. The aim is to develop spatial biomass product line models that permanently support the raise of employment by utilizing the possibilities of the European Union support policy and the popularity of this branch.

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The identification of phylloquinone in cattle samples using T.L.C. method
Published October 5, 2010

A case of hemorrhage of unknown origin was observed in cattle and liver samples were submitted for assay of Vitamin K or
possible cuomarol. After evaluating normal and reverse phase Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates and different solvents,
reverse phase TLC plate with indicator and methylene chloride:methanol 70:30 were chosen for di...rect method of detection and
indication of Vitamin K.Gass Chromatography and Densitometry were used to quantitate the Vitamin K present in liver samples and
confirmation of Vitamin K was done by Mass Spectroscopy.

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Aflatoxin production on agricultural products
Published March 11, 2014

Aflatoxins due to their toxicity pose significant economic and human health threat; therefore, it is important to avoid this type of contamination in agricultural products. Until now significant aflatoxin contamination occurred mainly in foods of tropical and subtropical origin because the optimal growth of the producer Aspergillus species is b...etween 32–38 ºC. Nowadays the aflatoxin contamination is becoming higher threat in Hungary, due to the imported products, the rising average temperature and the climatic changes. There is a significant knowledge on the genetic and environmental effectors of the aflatoxin production; however, it is remained a great problem to control mold contamination and toxin production in farming and stock-raising. Here we attempted to summarize the knowledge on aflatoxin production and attempts of the elimination.

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Examination of feral pigeon populations at animal breeding farms
Published July 16, 2007

In the course of our examination, we assessed biometric data that determine gender, we evaluated sexual activity, measured the nourishment and necropsies of two feral pigeon populations feeding and nesting at animal breeding farms. The changes in the body weight of the different genders were significant on both farms (p<0.05).
The body we...ight and the crop volume of the birds were not significantly different at the examined farms.
On both farms, the elemental food source of the birds was the fodder and corn kernels given to cattle, and was supplemented by that of the pigeons living at the Debrecen farm with food from surrounding farms and with other seeds (pea, millet, rye).
By the examination of the genitals, the birds collected from the Nyírbátor farm showed sexual activity from the beginning of spring, and in the summertime decreasing activity is characteristic, while the pigeons from the Debrecen farm are only active from the summer months. In the course of the examinations in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites and the results of the Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. The bacteriologic analyses showed a different proportion of E.coli, Pasteurella multicoda, haemolysing Staphylococcus bacteria at the two cattle farms. During the examinations for the statement of Salmonellas, this causative agent was stated only in case of birds that spend nights and nested in the town, which allude to human origin. We demonstrated Eimeria oocysts during the parasitological examination of the fecal samples in 5 cases at the Debrecen, and in 1 case at the Nyírbátor farm.

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Overview of the evolutionary history and the role in citric acid production of alternative oxidase
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">All organisms are exposed to countless environmental effects, which influence in a disadvantageous way their life processes. They continuously adapt to the changing conditions and respond to the stress impacts by defence mechanisms. Through different signal transduction pathways they are able to increase or decrease the expression of their genes and consequently modify their metabolic processes. My interest focuses on alternative oxidase (AOX) enzyme whose expression is often increased under biotic and abiotic stress. The so far proven and putative functions of the AOX play a role in the ability of organisms to adapt to different conditions, such as heavy metals accumulation, pathogenic infection, oxidative stress and lack of oxygen or nutrients.

AOX is a member of the di-iron carboxylate protein family. Members of the di-iron carboxylate protein family are present in all kingdoms of life. They are considered to have ancient origin. It is believed that their sulfide-resistant and oxygen-reducing ability played a role in the survival of organisms during the transition between the anaerobic and the aerobic world. It is assumed that the AOX arose in eukaryotes through a primary endosymbiotic event, and this event made possible the development of mitochondria. Afterwords, vertical inheritance, and secondary and tertiary endosimbiotic events led to its spread among eukaryotes. It is assumed that bacteria obtained AOX by horizontal gene transfer from plants.

AOX-catalyzed alternative respiration plays an important role in the operation of energy-producing and biosynthesizing system of microorganisms. In these cases, the regeneration of reduced cofactors is an essential condition, and therefore may be rate-limiting for biotechnological processes, including the citric acid production.

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The father of the term ‘biotechnology’ was Hungarian: The forgotten works of Károly Ereky
Published September 14, 2005

In the Nature, Robert Bud gave an account of the fact that the generator of the concept "biotechnology" was the Hungarian Karl Ereky who, in his book published in Berlin in 1919 entitled "Biotechnologie der Fleisch-, Fett- und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe" ("Biotechnology of Meat, Fat and Milk Production in a Large-Scale... Agricultural Farm"), disclosed his observations and new views in that regard. Later on, Ereky's two essays, published in German language again, and other contemporary German sources have been processed which have confirmed the assumption whereas – in scientific terms – the further first applications of the expression "biotechnology" can be attributed to Ereky's works. Recently, we have explored and found biographical sources and documents which had been published by Ereky, which, however, have already been forgotten, by dint of which the story of origin of the first concept "biotechnology" can as well be clarified in a factual manner.

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Some Variable Traits of Broiler Genotypes
Published September 8, 2020

One the most effective ways to satisfy the requirements of mankind for food of animal origin is the fattening of chicken. Healthy and cheap meat with low fat and high protein content can be produced rapidly and in large quantities by broilers with low feed consumption. This paper presents the production results and carcass traits of three genot...ypes (Ross 308, Cobb 500, Ross broiler parent) females and males at the age of 42 days.
In both sexes, we found that the average body weight of the Ross parents genotype was higher (females: 2643 g; males: 3089 g) than the
average body weight of the other two hybrids – significant difference was found only between pullets. However, the smallest difference in the
average body weight between the two sexes (446 g) was found in this genotype. In both sexes, the lowest average weight was detectable in
the case of the Cobb 500 hybrids (females: 2443 g; males: 3052 g).The feed consumption ability of the females were worse – in all but one
case (Ross pullet) – than that of the males. For one kg of weight gain - in the order of genotypes – 1.79kg, 2.08kg and 2.08 kg of feed was
used. The same values for the males were as follows: 1.81kg, 1.80kg and 1.89 kg, respectively.
Carcass traits were examined and it was found that the average grillfertig weight, the weight of whole thigh meat and thigh meat of the
Ross parents’ genotype was higher than the average weight of the other two hybrids. Significant difference was found only in grillfertig- and
whole thigh meat weight. Pullets of the Ross parents’ paternal line had worse results in the average weight of breast meat with bone and
breast meat fillet than the other two genotypes. In the case of cocks was detectable the inverse of this: the average weight of breast meat with
bone was the highest in the cocks of the Ross parents’ maternal line.

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Economic Assessment of Biodiesel Production for Hungarian Farmers
Published May 12, 2002

Utilisation of oil of plant origin as a fuel is gaining acceptance in the European Union and elsewhere. Besides environmental protection, energy saving, and decreasing over-production of food. Additionally, the subsidisation of farmers and the development of rural sub-regions also contribute to its spread. This study specifically focuses on the... direct effects biodiesel's raw materials and final products are now having on farmers, while reviewing and quantifying these effects. I have purposely restricted my analysis to these two elements of the biodiesel chain.
The biodiesel chain seems to be a great method for improving the economic and social position of participant farmers in many ways. Presently, the profitability of raw materials’ production looks to be the crucal point in the chain, and could be strengthened best with intensive, habitat-specific agrotechnic. It would only be possible to reach a favourable profit margin for farmers if yields reach unrealistic averages or if there is a significant hike of the 2000 producer’s price in the oil plant branch.
The main attraction of sunflower- and oilseed rape production lies in the stabilization of market conditions, which is not only gong to appear in oil plant branch but – thanks to the reduction of outputs – also in the cereal branches. Better economic safety for farmers may play a role at least on the same level as in plant production, which involves more risks than profit maximalization.
The reduction of the prime cost of biodiesel could be possible through the direct combustion of the whole oilseed plant or its residues or electricity production using them. Whereas energy demand for biodiesel production is low (appr. 5%) but it needs subsidization and the prices of natural gas and electrical energy presently look favourable in Hungary. Additionally harvesting and baling of the residues is technically problematic, which is why their use may seem to be reasonable just over the middle or long term. Another possible factor of cost reduction could be the centralization of some partial operations, which needs serious financial resources to reduce amortization cost per product, provided there be several biodiesel projects near each other during establishment. Creation and operation of a logistical system could also be a good method for improving the viability of the biodiesel chain, in order to optimize transport schedule and distances. However there are also some organizational difficulties in this case.

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Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties
Published March 11, 2014

Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

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