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  • A review on the trend of livestock breeds in Laos
    227-237
    Views:
    329

    When the livestock sector is considered an essential role in farmers' livelihood, and local breeds are still the critical component of animal breeding in Laos. Thus, there is a need to review the previous, current situation and prospects for Laos' livestock production. It aimed to study the different traits among the existing dominant local and improved livestock breeds (cattle, pig, and goat) and a more in-depth study on the livestock sector's previous evolving and prospects. Our findings revealed that the general trend of livestock population in Laos increased year-by-year for over 45 years, except for 1995 to 2000. It was decreased by almost 22% due to the new national strategy on economic revolution.  The first foreign breeds were introduced into Laos, i.e., Large White, Landrace, and Duroc in 1980, Red Sindhi bulls in 1998, the frozen semen of Red Brahman 2003, and Bach Thao goats between 2001 to 2003. Unfortunately, many data are still not precise for introducing other foreign breeds like Boer goats, Thai Grey and Red Brahman. There were many missing data on the improvement of livestock breeds in Laos, including the local and improved breeds' reproductive and productive performance, which needs more study and research. We conclude that the semi-complex farm operation should be applied to improve livestock breeding and their productions in Laos.

     

  • Trends in Dry Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Production
    53-58
    Views:
    130

    Dry pea is an important, cool-season grain legume, which is grown worldwide on over 6 million hectares. The major producing countries outside Europe are China and Canada, followed by India, Australia, and the United States. France, Canada and Australia produce over 2 million hectares and are major exporters of peas. During the 1980’s, in developed countries of the European Union, pea production rose yearly by 6-10%, which represents a significant increase in both area and yield. Europe accounts for 50-75% of world pea production. In the 1990’s, the European Union produced 4-5 million tonnes of dry pea, of which 3-4 million tonnes were used for feed and 1 million tonnes for export. At the end of the 20th century, the growth in production was low, mainly because of the absence of support measures, and the better returns offered by other crops. In the countries of the former Soviet Union, dry pea was primarily used as feed and pea production dropped, due to a trend in livestock raising.
    Food consumption of dry pea is concentrated in developing countries, where grain legumes represent a useful complement to cereal-based diets as a relatively inexpensive source of high quality protein. As a result, human consumption of grain legumes fell from 2,2 kg/capita in 1961 to 0,5 kg/capita in 1999. The importance of grain legumes in food protein supply decreased, while that of cereal products increased. Shortage of grain legumes has adverse effects on the nutritional standard of poor people in developing countries.
    World dry pea production reached 16,7 million tonnes in 1990, with 3,7 million tonnes used as food, 11,4 million tonnes used as feed, and 1,0 million tonnes used as seed. Dry pea production was 10,9 million tonnes in 1999, and 3,5, 5,8 and 0,8 million tonnes was used as food, feed and seed, respectively. In the coming decades, world grain legume production and utilization as feed are expected to expand at a slower rate than in the 1980’s. Most of the increase is expected to occur in Eastern European countries, Canada and Australia, where production is anticipated to grow at 2% annually. The projection for the new millennium was derived from adjusted trends in area and yield over the period 1961-2000, based on FAO statistical data.

  • Global and national economic importance of pig meat production
    13-20
    Views:
    312

    The pork production has changed significant in recent decades. Pig production fell significantly due to the need to adapt to new animal welfare rules in the sector. Furthermore, change in the meat consumption habit had also a negative effect on pig meat production. Hungarian pig sector and meat industry are in a difficult situation. Due to the high feed prices, the average production cost of pig farming has often exceeded the  producer prices in recent years, therefore an increase of pig population could not be realised yet. Pig market is characterised by cyclical fluctuations of supply and prices, furthermore the decreasing producer price occurred parallel with increasing feed prices.
    Technology is also a critical fact in the Hungarian pig sector because there is a huge gap in the level of technology compared to that of competitive member states. With the development of production methods the efficiency of pork meat production can be improved in an environmentally friendly way.

  • Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina
    501-513
    Views:
    60

    The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main breeding organization is the Departmant of
    Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

  • Agrarian sector of Ukraine in the global world
    57-60
    Views:
    107

    Characterization of Ukraine as a “bread basket” for the world have been done. In our study using database of State statistical service of Ukraine and FAO we showed changes of harvest areas and volume of production of cereals and protein-oil crops during this century.

    As a result we showed that Ukraine has increased its share in the world gross harvest of cereals up to 2.17% and protein-oil crops up to 3.4%. Each economically active agrarian produced 22.6 tons of cereals and 3.5 tons of protein-oil crops, increasing this index in comparing to 2000 in 11 and 12 times accordingly.

    Ukraine has a great potential for increasing crop production because of use genetic potential of varieties only for 60–70%. Here are shown changes in cattle, poultry breeding and dynamic of livestock production. We also included export of cereals and livestock production.

  • An overview of swine production and marketing in Africa - Mini review
    121-129
    Views:
    25

     Pigs are the oldest domesticated animals, though their ancestry is still uncertain because of a lack of archaeological and genetic evidence. Pigs serve a vital role in reducing the demand for livestock and livestock products in most parts of the world. Especially in the African continent, pigs serve as mobile cash implying how easily they can be converted into cash to sort pressing family needs. Pig production in Africa is different from advanced systems of production in temperate countries, however, it has similarities with most of the tropical low and middle-income nations. Pig production in Africa requires attention to enable it to contribute effectively to the growing African population. However, it has been orchestrated with a myriad of challenges including market access. This mini-review is designed in a manner to provide an overview of pig production contribution to livelihoods in Africa and associated challenges with possible appropriate solutions.

  • Perspectives of the livestock sector in the Philippines: A review
    175-188
    Views:
    2314

    The Philippine livestock industry is a vital component in the country's agricultural sector. It contributes around 18.23 percent of the gross output value in agriculture and provides livelihood to many people living in rural areas, signifying its importance with regard to the country’s economy. The constantly increasing demand for animal protein associated with the increase of the world’s population led to the intensification of livestock production, realized through the various initiatives implemented by the government, such as the import of high producing purebreds of various species. This strategy greatly influenced the country's animal genetic resource's diversity and increased food animals' population; however, it impacted the native breeds of food animals. Understanding the characteristics, performance and value of native and exotic breeds is essential to prioritize their livestock industry existence. Thus, this paper aims to characterize various native and exotic breeds of livestock in the Philippines and assess the current conservation of native animals.

  • Quality management and traceability in crop production
    273-277
    Views:
    130

    Today, food safety and quality is an everyday issue. Scandals in the food industry drew attention to the role and responsibility of food producers in the food chain. The European Union has set up a new integrated approach towards food safety, to which Hungary as an EU member and export-oriented country has also joined. The new “from farm to fork” principle states that food and feed production cannot be handled separately, as only feed produced from good quality raw materials can ensure safe food products. Another important issue is the traceability of products, allowing for the localization and recall of the defected item. In Hungary, there have been different documentation systems for tracking and tracing products, such as the land register in crop production, animal register in the livestock sector and hygiene registers in the food industry. In order to meet EU requirements, there is a growing number of initiatives to include primary production in the scope of food safety standards. The study introduces and compares the various management systems used in crop production.

  • The role of animal breeding with special regard to native pigs of food supply and rural development in Laos
    149-154
    Views:
    245

    The present paper explored the influence of breeding native pigs on livelihood conditions and the contribution of native pigs to the rural development and rural poverty reduction in the rural areas of Lao PDR. Pig production plays an important role in meat supply for both urban and rural areas of Laos. It is clear that most of the pig products in the country come from smallholder pig farms, and more than 90 percent of those products are the native pigs mostly raised by farmers in remote areas. In general, livestock production distributed between 15–18 percent to GDP, while most of animal production still remains as the traditional methods. Rural development is always the first priority of the Laos government since its independence in 1975, however, the poverty rate in rural areas remained high at 23% in 2018. It might block the development goal of the government which will lead the country out of the least development status by 2020. The food security and malnutrition in the rural or mountainous areas are considered as the majority issue that both government and several international organizations have been thriving hard to overcome, which researchers showed that more than 45% of children under 5 years of age were stunted, and 28% of them were underweight. Inspired of more than 50 % of the households in the rural areas of Laos reported they consumed chicken and pork at least one day a week. While native pigs play an important role on meat supply, it also constituted around 9–14 % of annual income of the households in rural areas. Therefore, the increase the production of pigs and poultry is one option to promote the meat supply to households in the rural areas of Laos. This paper will be a pathway to guide and identify for the final decision to what experiment will be implemented on Lao native pig in Laos (2021–2023) to complete the comparative study on reproductive physiology and reproductive management methods of Hungarian and Lao Indigenous pig breed. Which found it still needs further afford to research and improve more about native pig performance for all areas of productive and quality management.

  • Investigation of the effect of allithiamine-enriched feed on the poultry gut microbiome composition and resistome
    149-155
    Views:
    83

    Over the past 20–25 years, the poultry industry has evolved into a specific protein production system. However, the stress resulting from intensive rearing practices has led to numerous negative consequences, making the optimisation of livestock gut microbiome composition crucial for mitigating these effects. Advancements in modern molecular biology methods have brought attention to the impacts of nutrients on gut microbiota. In our study, we extensively investigated the changes induced by feed formulations rich in phytonutrients on the gastrointestinal microbiota of livestock using targeted 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our objective is to examine how the developed feed prototype affects the composition of core microbiomes in raised poultry, community diversity, and the resilience of complex microbial networks. We seek correlations between biological livestock and environmental samples to identify which community constituents, in what proportions and occurrences, may play a role in the development of specific diseases. Based on our measurement results, it can be asserted that allithiamine positively modulated "beneficial" community constituents. Beyond the impact of allithiamine-enriched feed rich in phytonutrients, the composition of the microbial community in the poultry gastrointestinal tract is significantly influenced by the age of the birds. Furthermore, due to the presence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens in environmental samples from livestock facilities, appropriate transmission risk management measures are of paramount importance.

  • Assessment of energy generated by biogas production in the educational industrial unit of the University of Szeged, Faculty of Agriculture, with special regard to biomass originating from agriculture and the food industry
    137-140
    Views:
    81

    The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfills lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for waste. For agro-mechanical research, wastes from animal rearing and the food industry, secondary-tertiary biomass, is of deep concern. Available technology is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50-dairy cow, family sized model farm was built in the summer of 1991, as a result of a Dutch – Hungarian cooperation, on the property of the Faculty. The new pig farm, with 30 sows, and the new goat farm, with 100 nannies, was given to the Faculty on 25 April 2001. On the basis of livestock data, the annual dung production and the producible energy were determinate. The energy was calculated by biogas production coefficients in literature.

  • The role of green manure crops in Hungarian plant production
    49-53
    Views:
    212

    According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavourable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.

    The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.

  • Development of seed analyses by means of various matrix solutions and the MALDI-TOF MS technique
    53-57
    Views:
    280

    The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.

  • Agricultural biogas plants in Eastern Hungary
    79-81
    Views:
    134

    In the scope of the article, agricultural biogas plants which operate within the region have been analysed together with their linked livestock plants. The study attempts to describe the current condition and future opportunities of the sites. It also covers the description of energy production/use efficiency. The study contains the list of factors determining the economic operation of biogas plants. In the course of the analysis, types, amount and quality of energy produced of different raw materials have been determined within the decentralised energy production.

  • Heat stress of cattle from embryonic phase until culling
    11-22
    Views:
    264

    Heat stress becomes a serious problem in the livestock sector as it affects cows' performance negatively. The objective of this paper review is to investigate the effects of heat stress during the different phases of the life cycle of cows; embryos, calves, heifers, and cows. Heat stress during early maternal gestation affects the ability of embryos to develop increasing the risk of abortion and early embryonic death. Heat stress during late maternal gestation affects the performance of calves and heifers later in their life, as it reduces growth performance, conducts physiological changes, impaired immunity, changes the behavior, and reduces the length and intensity of the estrus in heifers with decreasing in milk production in the first lactation. On the level of cows, milk quality and production, meat quality, and the final body weight decrease under hot temperatures. Heat stress decreases the conception rate, alters follicle growth, and estrous symptoms. Hormones secretion and physiological changes because of the heat stress conduct to impair the immunity system, and in oxidative stress and death in some cases. Same as for calves and heifers a change in the behavior of cows was detected in order to decrease their temperature.

  • Study of The Amount of Produced Animal Manure and Biogas Potential in a 5, 20 and 40 km Zone around Debrecen
    64-68
    Views:
    74

    The guiding principle for our research is that decentralized energy supply systems should be located near local consumers. One big, local market for energy from biogas plants in Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. In the course of the investigation of biomass suitable for biogas production in the area of Debrecen, this study determines the quantity of biogas producible from animal manure. Municipalities around Debrecen were examined in circles with 40, 20 and 5 km radius. Livestock data of these settlements stem from the Agricultural Census in year 2000, actualized by the county trend of livestock changes. Manure quantity and biogas potential in these places are estimated with coefficients from the literature and our calculations. In the largest circle, about 1.4 million tons of manure is produced, from which round 94 million m3 biogas can be produced. Biomass produced in the settlements and producible biogas shows a remarkable trend of concentration, which supports our recommendation on the system of energy supply.

  • Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
    61-68
    Views:
    125

    The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
    If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
    Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
    In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
    – the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
    – the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
    – the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
    – the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
    – the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
    – the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

  • The situation of agricultural education in the Hungarian language in Romania
    11-14
    Views:
    102

    Our objective was to analyse the situation of Hungarian language agricultural higher education in Romania. Our analyses have been focused mainly on Kovászna county. Following the evaluation of the characteristics of the county, we assessed the situation of Hungarian language higher education in Romania. History is considered important, because Hungarian language agricultural higher education goes back to the 1860s. The best solution for measuring the current reputation was the completion of questionnaires, which was done by 140 randomly selected people in Kovászna county. Following the evaluation and analysis of the questionnaires we found that local agricultural education, plant production and livestock farming are important activities for the locals. However, it is sure that even if they are satisfied with the education, they consider continuous development very important, since it would be a major help for the employment and subsistence of fresh graduates in Kovászna county.

  • Enhancement potentials for labour efficiency in small and large scale cattle farms
    70-75
    Views:
    70

    The author examined the possibilities of increasing the labour efficiency at 6 large-scale farms and at 109 small-scale farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. He stated that the level of labour efficiency was higher for large scale farms than for small-scale farms. However, there is potential for work organisation of milking, feeding and other jobs on the large-scale farms, too. The reason for the low labour efficiency on small-scale dairy farms is the small number of livestock, obsolete machinery, and lack of expertise. The author points out that the quality of raw milk is also an important issue. Using examination methods of work organisation, he determined the critical points of raw milk production.

  • The development of the scientific bases of horticulture and the history of horticultural innovation in the Northern Great Plain region and in Debrecen
    17-20
    Views:
    78

    It can be told about the second half of the XXth century that, apart from preferring the large-scale growing of field plants and the largescale
    livestock farming, corresponding to the central political will of the communist era, the significance and innovation output of
    horticultural education in Debrecen was rather of follow-up trait, of secondary importance. The Tobacco Research Institute continued the
    research work, and then even this activity was stopped. According to a survey finished in 1997, the mentioned institute had no invention,
    granted patent, protection for registered model or any application for patent in progress at the Hungarian Patent Office. Until this time, invention activity at the University of Agricultural Sciences was of medium standard. In the National Patent Office, seven patent applications related to agricultural production and nine patent applications for other fields submitted under the inventors’ names were recorded. In the same period, the Cereal Research Institute (Szeged) led the absolute innovation list of Hungarian agricultural R+D institutions and university education institutes by submitting 164 own patent applications. Both in domestic and international terms, the horticultural innovation conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, despite the individual research results and achievements deserving recognition, without appropriate background – remained unnoticed. Let us put it this way: for the past decades, the light of the Debrecen Flower Carnival has not been thrown on the horticultural teachers and researchers of Debrecen.