It is well established that microorganisms are closely associated with the roots of plants can directly influence plant growth and development. Species of Trichoderma, on the other hand are primarily studied for their ability to control plant disease. The ability of species of Trichoderma to directly promote or inhibit plant growth has been not...ed for many years.
Tomatoes were treated with different Trichoderma strains by seed treatment and soil inoculation. The Trichoderma were grown on malt-agar medium and conidia were washed off by sterile water for making suspension which contained 107 CFU/ml (colony forming unit/ml). The suspension was used for seed treatment and for the soil inoculation by watering as well. The artificial soil inoculation was made by Trichodermas growing on grounded maize were mixed in mould and tomato seed were sown in it. Tomato seeds were also sown in bags made of close-meshed material which allowed the soil microorganisms to colonize the roots but it simultaneously protected the roots from soil contamination. Roots were put on Trichoderma selective medium to check the root colonization of the Trichoderma.
The tomato plants were bedded out in a field in four repetition. After harvesting by hand the results supported by statistics shown that there was significant differences between the yield of the untreated and treated tomato plants by Trichoderma strains.
Cyclic hydroxamic acids are the most considerable secondary metabolites in grasses and their main task is to protect these species from pathogens and pests. The cyclic hydroxamic acid content and common smut susceptibility were examined in our experiments. 27 maize hybrids were used for experimental plants in a climate room, wher...e the plants were grown on a nutrient solution. An infiltration method was used for the inoculation of the plants. The total quantity of cyclic hydroxamic acids was determined and the ratio of infected plants and the ratio of inhibition was determined, too. Based on our results, on the basis of all hybrids’ data, the total hydroxamic acid content of the infected plants was higher than in the control. On the level of individual hybrids, only 9 of them had higher cyclic hydroxamic acid content in the case of infection. Increase in cyclic hydroxamic content induced by the fungus in this case is a tool for the fungus to suppress other pathogens and pests. Amongst the hybrids’ cyclic hydroxamic acid contents, significant differences were detected in the control and in the infected treatment, too. The so-called “sweetcorn” hybrids showed high level of cyclic hydroxamic acid content. According to the differences amongst hybrids, homogenous groups were created which groups differed in the case of control and infected treatment, because of the difference in increase of cyclic hydroxamic acid content. The examined hybrids showed different levels of infection and different rate of growth inhibition for the effect of inoculation. According to the infection caused damage hybrids were ranked. Infection caused notable damage for hybrids Prelude, Desszert 73, DKC5276 and DK440.
Common smut disease of maize is one of the most frequent diseases of crop. In the last decades the importance of disease has decreased in feeding maize production, however its importance increasing again nowadays, especially at sweet maize hybrids. The aims of this work was to find hybrids possess of resistance, and to evaluate which ones are m...ore or less susceptible under field artificial inoculation circumstances. Among feeding maizes the less susceptible hybrid was ‘P9578’, and the most susceptible ’NK Columbia’ hybrid, and differences in cob infection between them was significant (8.8%). At sweet corn hybrids the less susceptible was ’Prelude’, while the most susceptible was ’Jumbo’ with very high significant 74.6% differences.
In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. When the pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harveste...d. During the three years of the experiment, 14 inbred lines were examined. The genotypes were sown in a two-factor split-plot design with four replications, with the genotypes in the main plots and four treatments in the subplots: two Fusarium graminearum isolates (1. FG36, 2. FGH4), 3. sterile kernels, 4. untreated control. The results experiments showed significant differences between the genotypes for resistance to fusarium stalk rot. Among the inbred lines the best resistance to fusarium stalk rot was exhibited by P06 and P07, both of which were related to ISSS. The precision and sensitivity of disease evaluations carried out visually and using image analysis software were compared in the experiment, and with two exceptions the CV values were lower for the image analysis. As the CV for measurements can be considered as a relative error, it can be stated that image analysis is the more precise of the two methods, so this technique gives a more accurate picture of the extent of stalk rot. The extent of stalk rot developing in response to natural infection is extremely environment-dependent, so the use of artificial inoculation is recommended for selection trials.
The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.
A study of fungi responsible for severe leaf spots of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in the Hajdúság region (East Hungary), Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata were isolated from infested leaf tissues. F. sporotrichioides was the most virulent fungus in pathogenicity tests conducted on healthy leaves of common milkweed...plants. Inoculation of common milkweed (A. syriaca) in different growth stages with F. sporotrichioides yielded similar symptoms as the original ones. Spray mixtures containing 1.0×106 conidia/ml gave effective control when common milkweed plants were sprayed until runoff occurred. Laboratory (wet chamber) and field experiments showed that asexual spores of the fungal pathogen, F. sporotrichioides, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against common milkweed (A. syriaca).
More efficient control efficacy was observable on elder plants (at flowering stage) than younger ones. These results initiate that this fungus may be a biocontrol agent for controlling this invasive weed but should clarify its hosts because it could infect cultivated plants as well.
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the m...ethod of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.