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Analysis methods of quality and traceability for honey
Published December 21, 2008
25-32

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. Thanks to the excellent dietetic and medical features, it has an important function in our nourishment. In Hungary about 25.000 tons of honey are produced each year. Most of the produce, about 80% is exported to different countries of the world. Hungarian types of honey have excellent quality. Th...rough exporting, the prestige and demand of Hungarian honey can be increased. In recent years the adulteration of honey caused many damages to producers and traders. The adulteration of honey is not easy to prove. Thereinafter, we represent several methods, such as oligosaccharide analysis or 13C/12C isotopic ratio analysis, which can identify the artificial substances of honey (for example: corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup) or can help to determine the ratio by which original honey can be identified. 

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Comparative study of special honey products and herbhoneys
Published June 30, 2018
117-120
Honey has a positive effect on human body due to its high content of biologically active substances (e.g. monosaccharides, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, polyphenolic compounds). The properties of honey depend on its botanical origin due to the bioactive plant components, mainly secondary metabolites that are inc...luded in honey made by bees from nectar. Herbally infused honeys are delicious products that combine the therapeutic action of herbs and honey. Additionally, herbs can provide nutrient fortified syrup for honey bees and protect them against diseases and other ecological threats.
The aim of this study was to define the physicochemical properties of multifloral honey, herb enriched natural honey and herbhoney samples. We measured the moisture content, pH value, electrical conductivity and proline content. Although great diversity was observed in the basic properties of the examined products. In our study, we found that the electrical conductivity shows the significant differ between the groups. All the samples, including the herbhoneys passes the quality standards of honeys.
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Comparison of quality parameters of producers' and commercial honeys
Published November 2, 2009
31-39

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishme...nt of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.

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Morpometric study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
Published February 10, 2013
59-63

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The honey bees are essential for the pollination of agricultural plants. The Pannonian honey bee, Apis mellifera pannonica, is native to Hungary, only these subspecies are being bread in our country. The parameters have been separated the pannon and italian honey bee subspecies, the colour of tergit, the cubital index and proboscis length. The morphometric analisys is of special importance because this, on the one hand, shows correlation with honey bee production and on the other hand, the pure morphometric charactersitics is the basis of any potential honey bee export. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites are the common methods to define genetic diversity and the separation of subspecies.

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Studying of quality parameters of Hungarian and Greek honey samples
Published November 15, 2007
147-153

Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality c...ontinuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.

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Antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of honeys
Published December 15, 2010
25-28

The influence of honey on human health has been known since ancient times. Different components, like vitamins, amino-acids, enzymes, and the so called antioxidant activity of the honey play role in this effect, and also in the excellent quality. The aim of present study was to determine the total antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content ...of some honey samples. These two parameters are widely studied, and a lot of data can be used to compare and analyse. On the basis of them we can state that our results are quite similar than those we can find in literature. Characteristic feature of the examined honey samples is, that the antioxidant activity increased with the darkening of the colour. The lowest antioxidant activity and flavonoid content was produced by the acacia honeys with greenish shade of colour. The highest values was found in the very dark honeys (forest, sage, golden rod). The only exception was the coriander honey, where despite of its lighter colour, very high antioxidant activity was
measured. 

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Genetic diversity study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies – Previous announcement
Published July 31, 2012
61-64

In Hungary, the Apismelliferacarnica is the native breed which is the only recognised and breedable honey bee in the country. It is assumed that there are a number of non-native and hybrid honey bee breeds in Hungary. The microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA surveys applied here will be utilised to easily and accurately identify the various spr...ads, and open up new ways in the research of honey bees. The isolation of the genomial DNS from 5 to 7 day old larvae samples was successfully carried out. In the future the plan is to carry out the measure with microsatellite markers. As an initial step the optimal annealing temperature was identified. In the mitochondrial DNA survey the COI-COII mytochonrial regional primer due to its low anneling temperature cannot be used with any normal sequencing methods. By using these method the aim of this research is the measurement of genetic variance.

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The effect of the queen's age on the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) burden of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
Published December 28, 2018
83-87

An apiary trial was conducted in 2016 August to October in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyírmada to evaluate the influence of queen’s age on the Varroa destructor-burden in the treatment colonies. Sixty colonies of bees belonging to the subspecies Apis mellifera carnica pannonica in Hunor loading hives (with 10 frames in the brood chamber.../deep super) were used. The colonies were treated with amitraz and the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos active ingredients. The amitraz treatment includes 6 weeks. The coumaphos treatment with Destructor 3.2% can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of Varroasis. For diagnosis, one treatment is sufficient. For control, two treatments at an interval of seven days are required. The colonies were grouped by the age of the queen: 20 colonies with one-year-old, 20 colonies with two-year-old and 20 colonies with three-year-old queen. The mite mortality of different groups was compared. The number of fallen mites was counted at the white bottom boards. The examination of spring growth of honey bee colonies has become necessary due to the judgement of efficiency of closing treatment. The data was recorded seven times between 16th March 2017 and 19th May 2017.

Data on fallen mites were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tukey-test. Statistical analysis was performed using the software of IBM SPSS (version 21.). During the first two weeks after treatments, the number of fallen mites was significantly higher in the older queen’s colonies (Year 2014). The total mite mortality after amitraz treatment in the younger queen’s colonies was lower (P<0.05) compared to the three-year-old queen’s colonies. According to Takács and Oláh (2016) although the mitemortality tendency, after the coumaphos (closing) treatment in colonies which have Year 2014 queen showed the highest rate, considering the mite-burden the colonies belongs to the average infected category. The colonial maintenance ability of three-year-old queen cannot be judged based on the influencing effect on the mite-burden. The importance of the replacement of the queen was judged by the combined effect of several factors.

During the spring-growth study (16th March–19th May) was experienced in the three-year-old queen’s colonies the number of brood frames significantly lower compared to the one- and two-year-old queen’s colonies. In the study of 17th April and 19th May each of the three queen-year-groups were varied. Therefore in the beekeeping season at different times were determined the colonial maintenance ability of queens by more factors: efficiency of closing treatment in early spring, the spring-growth of bee colonies, the time of population shift (in current study, this time was identical in each queen-year), honey production (from black locust).

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Study the correlation of morphological and production traits of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Review
Published March 20, 2014
61-65

There are several morphological differences among the honey bee subspecies, which proofs that they adapted different way to the environmental factors of the given area. Morphological observations are not the only way to separate subspecies, it is possible on their genetic speciality as well. The authors’s aim in this present study was to exam...ine morphological characteristics of subspecies, furthermore looking for correlation between morphological parameters and honey yield. According to their results, among the most important parameters considered by Hungarian breeders, in the case of the native Apismelliferacarnica subspecies, the proboscis length could be the indirect tool for honey-productivity focused selection.

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Ragweed components in honey
Published August 29, 2017
65-68

The aim of this research was to prove that the syrup containing ragweed used for feeding the bees was transferred to the honey. To reach this goal we developed a method to analyse the volatile components of the samples. We applied two sample preparation methods. The first one was SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) preparation from the headspac...e of all of the samples. In the second case only the raw leaves of the ragweed were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane to complete the SPME results. The measurements were performed on GC-MS equipment. Chromatograms and data evolution showed that the components of the ragweed were also present in honey so they were transferred by bees.

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Research of different adjuvants and yeast dosages in honey fermentation process
Published February 3, 2016
5-7

In order to ferment honey it is necessary to add in the fermentation environment some substances with the role of adjuvants, to improve the honey must composition and to help the fermentation process. There were tested 2 different combination of adjuvants which were analyzed in the fermentation process. Also the physical and chemical properties... of the final products were analyzed. After establishing the most suitable mix of adjuvants it was necessary to test the right dosage of the yeast used to metabolized sugars: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to obtain appropriate organoleptic properties.

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Production of novel fermented milks
Published November 13, 2012
303-305

The objective of this research was to test the influence of various natural substances on acid production, growth, and viability of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt and probiotic fermented dairy foods. Oligofructose, inulin, honey, and the dried biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were found to stimulate the growth rate and acid... production activity of the major thermophilic diary cultures tested and, in addition to this, the presence of the aforementioned substrates also improved the survival of starter bacteria in fermented milk products during storage. The reduced production time of cultured milks resulted in increased production efficiency. The stimulatory and/or protective effect of oligofructose,
inulin, honey, and Spirulina on Bifidobacterium spp. is probably the most important finding of this study because bifidobacteria do not grow well in milk and they have low survival rates in conventional fermented milks. Some of the bioactive substances tested were also capable of exerting an antifungal effect on spoilage yeasts and molds, and improving the nutritional and sensory properties of the final product, thus providing a new opportunity for manufacture of functional fermented dairy foods.

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Environmentally-benign plant protection possibilities against domestic Monilinia spp. in organic apple and stone fruit orchards
Published September 14, 2005
101-105

In this study, possibilities of environmental-friendly plant protection against domestical brwon rot species were summarized for oecological pome and stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then c...ultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Furthermore, mechanical, agrotecnical, biological, and other control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials) were shown.

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Honey bee mortalities caused by direct and indirect poisoning in Hungary
Published August 29, 2017
101-107

Bee poisoning related top lant production shows an increasing tendency. The poisoning of honey bees most of the times is caused by neonikotinoids and insecticides. The bee pasture has imparied because of the too high bee-density,therefore the beekeepers had to locate their colonies near to the farmland. The pollinating insects experience dimmes...urable damages because the ignorance of the agricultural society and the lack of communication. In cases of bee poisoning sometimes it can be intentional. The samples of direct bee-destruction show higher dose of chemical residues than the amount of which they can get during the pollinating activity. In our study we also demonstrate the direct bee poisoning which is caused by endosulfan and dichlorvos.

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Comparative study of honeys and herbhoneys quality paramertes
Published May 16, 2017
117-120

Honey is one of the oldest known and consumed food. Besides the pleasant sweet taste it has been consumed because of the favorable health benefits. In addition to large number of honey plants there are many popular herbals which cannot serve as a nectar source. The herbhoney has been developed that consumers can joy the pleasant properties of h...erbals and honeys positive impact on the same product. In our research we compare the quality parameters of honeys and herbhoneys to each other and with the relevant regulation.

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The effect of collecting area on the element content of Hungarian acacia honeys
Published September 5, 2018
129-138

Six macroelements and twelve microelements were identified in thirty-six Hungarian acacia honeys collected from ten counties by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One-Way ANOVA (LSD and Dunnett T3 test) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to ...determine the statistically verified differences among the honey samples with different geographical origin.

Significant differences were established among the samples from different counties in Na, P, S, Fe, Ni, Cu and Sr concentrations. Based on the macroelement content of honeys, the separation of samples with different geographical origin was not successful because the percent of correctly categorised cases was only 64.9%. However, examining the As, B, Ba, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Sr concentration, the separation of different groups was convincing since the percent of correctly classified cases was 97.2%. Thus, the examination of microelement concentration may be able to determine the geographical origin of acacia honeys.

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Loss and Disease Development of Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey in an Organic Apple Orchard
Published December 14, 2004
6-8

In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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HPLC-MS analysis of the active ingredients of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) bee feeding syrup
Published December 28, 2018
61-65

Apiarists let prepare by bee honey products containing medicinal drugs. Our aim was to prove that the active ingredients originated from the herbs are also present in the bee products. This publication focuses only to the chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) containing feeding syrup and the difference between the various syrup phases. To fulfil th...is task, we developed a method analysing the non-volatile components of the syrup using the flowers of chamomile. The method involves a filtration followed by HPLC-MS analysis. The analyses and the data evaluations proved that the non-volatile components of the herb were transferred to syrup. As the characteristic components of certain herbs could be identified also in the syrup, it is obvious that the components responsible for the medicinal effects are also transferred.

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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
Published February 25, 2014
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing a...nd resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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A gombatermesztés szerepe az átalakuló magyar mezőgazdaságban
Published March 27, 2002
15-22

The structure of Hungarian agriculture should be changed before the EU accession. The new structure should fulfill EU requirements and also produce competitive products. Unconventional products (mushroom, fish, honey etc.) have a lot of advantages: they can be produced on small farms, their trade is mainly free of regulation and their markets a...re almost unlimited. This paper deals with one of these alternative agricultural enterprises, namely mushroom production. Hungarian mushroom production – in spite of difficulties – has witnessed remarkable expansion: it has increased its production by fourfold and its export by fivefold in less than ten years. The low level of wages gives Hungary significant advantage over its competitors. If we could ensure the appropriate infrastructure (technical advice, bank loans, etc.) the mushroom industry would become one of the most profitable sectors of Hungarian agriculture.

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