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Yearly change of Wheat dwarf virus infection rate during 1996-2010 in winter barley
Published November 10, 2010
22-28

Yearly change of the infection of Wheat dwarf virus was studied in winter barley during 1996-2010. Surveys were carried out at Kompolt (Rudolf Fleischmann Research Institute, Róbert Károly College), in winter barley breeding lines showing leaf yellowing and stunting symptoms. In 1996, 250 winter barley samples were tested. During the period o...f 1997–2005, 100 samples were collected in each year. In 2006, 490 winter barley samples were tested. In 2007 and 2008 the number of samples collected was 500 from winter barley. In 2009 year 100, and in 2010 year 100 winter barley samples were collected for virus testing. Virus diagnosis was carried out using DASELISA for the detection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-MAV, BYDV-PAV, BYDV-RMV, BYDV-SGV), and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV). During the ten of the last fifteen years, the occurrence of Wheat dwarf virus in infected samples exceeded those of other viruses causing leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms. There were years (1997, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2010) when only the Wheat dwarf virus played the main role in development of yirus symtoms. A contrasting tendency can be observed between the degrees of infection of WDV and BYDV. With a rise of infection in the WDV, the proportion of BYDV decreased and vice-versa. 

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Effect of Copper, Zinc and Lead and Their Combinations on the Germination Capacity of Two Cereals
Published December 14, 2004
39-42

The majority of researchers have studied the following group of microelements: B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na, Co, Mo, I, Sn, Cl, Al, V, F, Cr, Hg, Cs, Li, Cd, As, Th, Rb, Cr, W, Ti, Sn, Se, Ba, Br. Sporadically, the following elements have been mentioned too: Au, Ra, Hg and Pb. In this study, the effects of copper treatments and their combination with zinc... and lead microelements on the germination of maize and barley were investigated using different concentrations of these microelements. Six treatments were used: 1. Copper-sulphate (CuSO4) applied alone, 2. Zinc-sulphate (ZnSO4) applied alone, 3. Copper applied with zinc, 4. Lead-nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) applied alone, 5. Copper applied with lead and 6. Untreated control. Maize (Kiskun SC 297) and barley caryopsis were treated with copper and zinc solutions in the following concentrations: 0.03%, 0.003% and 0.0003%. Maize and barley caryopsis were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. Maize and barley caryopsis were also treated with lead solutions Pb(NO3)2 with different concentrations: 0.0005%, 0.005% and 0.05%. Maize and barley were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. In the combined treatments (3 and 5), the same concentration was used for each microelement as in treatments 1, 2 and 4. Control treatments were treated with water for both plant species. Our results showed that copper microelements significantly inhibit germination compared to the untreated control. The toxicity of copper is higher if concentration increases. Zinc microelements also inhibit germination, however its effect highly depends on the microelement concentration. Treatments of copper + zinc also inhibit germination. The two microelements applied together cause more phytotoxicity than they do alone. Lead is highly toxic to plants even in low concentrations. The toxic effect on germination dramatically increased when lead was applied with copper.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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The Effect of Drought on the Yield of Winter Barley Lines in the Great Cumania Region
Published May 4, 2004
127-129

Winter barley is the third most important fodder plant in Hungary after winter wheat and maize.
Its accommodation to the changing climatic conditions – mainly to drought in Great Cumania, the driest region of our country is of great importance from the point of view of plant breeding and growing.
The vegetation period of 2002/2003 can b...e considered to have been very droughty with 247.5 mm precipitation.
According to our results six- rowed barley lines have better drought tolerance than two-rowed lines. The average yields of the six-rowed barley lines were 12-25 per cent higher than the yields of the two rowed lines.
Due to the joint effect of delayed sowing and drought, significant yield depression was detected both in the case of the early and the medium maturity group, and assessable data could be gained only from 35 per cent of the total territory.

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Determining the antioxidant compounds of beer
Published June 30, 2018
5-10

The increasing consumption of beer indicates the necessity of the thorough analysis of its composition. In this study, the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and colour intensity of 24 beer samples have been determined. The samples contained pale barley, dark barley, pale wheat and dark wheat beers. The aim of the study was to determine ...the amount of the antioxidant compounds in beer, as well as to find correlation between different beer types and the above mentioned parameters.

Dark barley samples contained phenolic compounds in the highest concentrations, and it can also be concluded that dark beers contain phenolic compounds and flavonoids in higher concentrations than pale beers in the case of barley and wheat samples.

According to the performed statistical analysis, these beer types cannot be differentiated based on the analysed parameters. The highest percentage of correctly classified samples could be observed in case of dark barley samples, but this value has only been 75%, and the total result of correctly classified cases was only 41.7%. The analysis of more samples and parameters is required to carry out a successful differentiation.

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
Published December 16, 2012
81-85

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Agronomic bases of precision barley production
Published November 13, 2012
217-220

To ascertain the importance of individual preciosion factors in achieving yield and quality of malting barley, we established a multifactor 
experiment at the research station of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2009 and 2010. Four variants of fertilization, 2 ways of soil cultivation and four varieties 'Bojos’, 'Kango...o’, 'Marthe’ and 'Xanadu’ were observed. From the quality indicators the nitrogen content (%) was observed. The results were statistically analyzed by using a multifactor analysis of variance by using Statistica 8, the program Statgraphics. The difference between years was statistically significant (1.87 t ha-1) in favour of 2010. The difference was also significant between the varieties 'Bojos’ and ’Kangoo’(1.07 t ha-1), respectively. 'Martha’ and 'Xanadu’ as well as 'Kangoo’ (0.56 resp. 0.33 t ha-1). Conventional soil cultivation in
comparison with a minimalization technology, demonstrated a  tatistically insignificant increase of yield. Significant differences were obtained between the variants of fertilization. Treatment by using Condit (b-var.) showed a very positive impact in climatic favorable year (2010) with a yield result of 7.42 t ha-1. In comparison with an untreated control, the difference in yield was 0.89 t ha-1. A significant increase of yield was achieved by using the combination of solid fertilizer with foliar fertilizer (LAV + Hakofyt, var.c) 0.47 t ha-1. The crude protein content was statistically influenced by a variety and year. In 2009, the crude protein content was above average (12.38%). Significantly lower attributes were achieved in 2010 (9.90%). From the studied/observed varieties the lowest crude protein content was showed by a variety 'Kangoo’ (1.68%).

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Varietal dependent response of barley to soil-borne Waitea circinata infection
Published June 2, 2015
100-106

The disease syndrome caused by Waitea circinata, a soil-borne pathogen introduced in the past decade into Carpathian basin, visually indistinguishable of those caused by various Rhizoctonia strains in diverse host plant. Dicotyledonaceous species in general proved to be more tolerant to this new pathogen than monotyledonaceous ones. This mesoph...ilic fungus can seriously damage cereals. The barley varieties, similarly to other plants, exhibited highly different individual reaction to soil borne infection, Bivoy being the most while Maresi the less tolerant among the 9 tested varieties. Two groups could be separated on the base of their response to Rhizoctonia; Jubilant, Bivoy, Pasadena formed one group being moderately tolerant and Anabell, Scarlett, Rex and Omega the other group of more susceptibles. Three significant factors influence on the virulence of Rhizoctonia strains comprised 62% of total variation.

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The influence of fertilization and tillage method on the formation root system capacity and grain production of spring barley
Published November 20, 2011
89-93

To evaluate the interaction of year x variety, year x tillage method and year x fertilization on the grain yield and root system capacity (RSC) of spring barley, we ran polyfactorial field trials in agroecological conditions of a warm corn production area in Slovakia, at  Malanta, in 2009 and 2010. The RSC measurements were done using LCR ...- meter at a frequency of 1 kHz and they took place in four growth stages: at leaf development in the stage of four leaves (RSC1), in full tillering (RSC2), in the stage heading (RSC 3) and at the stage of ripening (RSC4). The values of grain yield, RSC1, RSC2, RSC3, RSC4 reached in 2009 comparison to 2010 were significantly lower. The highest yield in 2009 was reached by variety Marthe (4.49 t.ha-1) and by variety Bojos (7.19 t ha-1) in 2010. The highest values of RSC in observed growth stages were achieved by variety Bojos in 2009, and in 2010 also besides RSC1. Within both years, difference in yields between tillage methods was not observed. The values of RSC in growth stage of 4 leaves and tillering was higher at conventional tillage, butthe values of RSC3 and RSC4 were higher with minimized tillage. The highest grain yield and values of RSC in every growth stage were achieved on the fertilization variant “c“ in 2009 and on the fertilization variant “b“ in 2010. The correlation relationships between grain yield and RSC were significant and positive in every growth stage. The strongest relationship was found among grain yield and RSC (r=0.6047).

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The virus infection of South-Hungarian corn fields
Published October 30, 2011
52-55

The past years cereal diseases, including the virus diseases have been increased in Hungary as well as worldwide. The aim of our work was to survey the virus infection of South Hungarian wheat fields. Leaf samples were collected in Szeged at the experimental farm of Cereal Research Nonprofit Co., in April and Junes of 2009 and 2010. DAS ELISA t...ests were carried out using Loewe antisera of Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome streak mosaic virus (BStMV), Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and measured with Labsystem Multiscan RC Elisa reader at 405nm. In the samples of 2009 the Wheat dwarf and Wheat streak mosaic viruses were dominated. It was also significant the appearance of the. Barley yellow dwarf virus. 2010. was favourable for the spread of the virus vectors, therefore the incidence of virus diseases increased.

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The efficiency of the different elements of spring barley growing organic technology in the conditions the eastern steppe of Ukraine
Published May 16, 2017
209-213

The effectiveness the use of new nutrient complexes is studied. It is set that a combination of nutrient complexes with organic and organicmineral nutrition background promotes to good growth and development of plants during the growing season, provides the best parameters of crop yield structure and the crop yield and economic efficiency of sp...ring barley cultivation in the condition of the Eastern Steppe of Ukraine.

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Relation of availability and barley uptake of some potentially toxic elements
Published February 23, 2008
7-10

A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The ...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.

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CO2 emission of the soil on barley stubble
Published October 20, 2009
95-102

In the last decades the physical and biological status of the soils in Hungary significantly decreased. The degree and intensity of CO2-production of the soil is in close correlation to its structural status and organic matter content. In a complex soil tillage experiment at Karcag in situ measurements have been carried out since 200...2 in order to determine the CO2-emission of the soil. Carbon-dioxide emission of the soil in the cases of conventional tillage and reduced cultivation system was analysed in a long-term cultivation experiment. The measurements were carried out after the harvest of the barley, thus root respiration was excluded. For the spatial delimitation of the measuring area a newly developed frame+bowl set was used. Based on measurements, significant differences between cultivation systems can be recognized due to the soil structure changes and its effects

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Research on the allelopathic effect among the species Tanacetum vulgare and some agricultural crops
Published November 10, 2010
105-109

The research presents the results of the allelophatic effect upon the germination and growth of plants, immediately after springing, viewed as the interaction between the species of Tanacetum vulgare sin Chrysanthemum vulgare and three other crops: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.).... The experiments that were performed consisted in applying treatments with aqueous extracts obtained from the roots, leaves, stems and flowers harvested from T. vulgare plants upon the seeds of the three agricultural crops mentioned before. In all aqueous extracts, the results indicate the presence of some chemical compounds that have inhibiting allelophatic effect. The plants upon which tests were made showed great sensitivity, the results on their germination and growth being significantly negative and highly significantly negative.
The conclusions of this research sustain the idea of setting new research objectives in order to discover the chemical compounds from T. vulgare extracts that have such a stong effect and the possibilities they offer.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
Published May 23, 2006
7-14

dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further ...decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

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Presence, feeding and health status of collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto Friv. 1838) on animal breeding farms
Published May 23, 2006
49-54

In the course of our examinations we were determining the gender of collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) feeding at animal breeding farms by biometric data. We were estimated their nourishment and necropsies were carried out.
We compared the results of the nutrition analysis with similar data of collard doves feeding at agricultural areas....
We analyzed the crop and gizzard content and recorded the body proportions of collard doves that were captured between December of 2004 and August 2005. In the course of the necropsy examinations we did parasitological, bacteriological examinations as well as examinations for the detection of Newcastle disease. In the course of the gender analysis of the collard doves that were collected at animal breeding farms, both the wing length and the length of the third quill-feather has shown a significantly greater value in the case of males (p>0.05).
From the orts found in the crop and gizzard it has been stated that the feed consumed the most was corn (80.77% m%). The collared doves consumed much less other cereal seeds (wheat 0.82%, barley 1.26%).
In the course of the necropsy examinations done in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites, and the results of the Salmonella and Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. E. coli bacteria had been detected in the liver of not more than three birds.

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Determining factors of test weight in maize (Zea mays L.)
Published November 15, 2007
40-42

Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for thi...s reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.

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