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  • Effects of the cropyear and the agronomical factors on agronomical elements of different sweet corn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) genotypes in long-term experiment
    105-110
    Views:
    97

    In the crop season of 2010 (rainy year), we studied the effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and four different genotypes on the agronomical characteristics of sweet corn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen. In the experiment, two sowing dates (27 April, 26 May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) were used at two plant densities (45 thousand plants ha-1, 65 thousand plants ha-1). The amount of precipitation in the season of 2010 was 184 mm higher, while the average temperature was 0.8 oC higher in the studied months than the average of 30 years. Weather was more favourable for sweet maize at the first sowing date, if we consider the yields, however, if we evaluate the agronomical data and yield elements (number of cobs, cob length and diameter, the number of kernel rows, the number of kernels per row) it can be stated that the size of the fertile cobs was greater at the second sowing date due to the lower number of cobs. The largest number of fertile cobs was harvested in the case of the hybrid Enterprise (72367.9 ha-1) in the higher plant density treatment (65 thousand ha-1) at the fertilization level of N120+PK when the first sowing date was applied. The largest cobs were harvested from the hybrid Box-R (cob weight with husks: 516.7 g, number of kernels in one row: 45.7) at the lower plant density (45 thousand plants ha-1) in the second sowing date treatment. Cob diameter and the number of kernel rows were the highest for the hybrid Prelude.

  • The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    65-70
    Views:
    194
    Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
    The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
    The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
  • The effect of NPK fertilization and the plant density on maize yield and bioethanol production
    13-18
    Views:
    88

    For industrial (bioethanol) production of maize, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2008.
    In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance.

  • The impact of grain maize and sunflower as previous crops on the yield and ear number of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
    75-79
    Views:
    118

    We have analyzed the effect of grain maize and sunflower forecrop on three different winter wheat genotype (GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) regarding to the spike number and yield in different fertilization levels in the 2012/2013 cropyear. According to our data after sunflower forecrop we reached higher spike number and yield, which were influenced by the differences of the varieties. We found significant differences between the varieties in the control treatment. According to our research, GK Csillag has reached the highest yield in the examined fertilization levels and forecrop models too.

  • Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
    147-151
    Views:
    120

    The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The wheat variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
    The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
    significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
    not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

  • The influence of fertilization on the soil characteristics of a calcareous chernozem in a long term experiment
    47-52
    Views:
    75

    In the long term fertilization experiment of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Science(CAAEC) (Debrecen Látókép), the effects of a 25-year-long fertilization were examined in terms of some chemical and microbiological properties of soil. With the growing doses of fertilizers, the available nutrient content of soil increased. At the same time the pH significantly decreased, while the hidden acidity increased. Moreover, the ratio between the soil bacteria and microscopic fungi, and the occurrence of microbes also changed. The number of sensitive physiological bacteria groups decreased dramatically. These changes indicate the reactions of living organisms; they correspond to the „resistance stage” of stress effects, but in the case of nitrifying bacteria, they reach the „exhaustion stage”.

  • Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
    357-369
    Views:
    200

    The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fertilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

    Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

  • The impact of fertilisation on a few microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle
    45-50
    Views:
    156

    The 30 years old long-term experiment of Látókép is continued in our experiments. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know how the growing levels of fertilization influence the microbial processes under nonirrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture. The experimental results and those statistics suggest that the bi and triculture influenced higher microbial activity which was reflected in number of fungus, soil respiration, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC).

  • Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
    127-136
    Views:
    93

    The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
    compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
    We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
    We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

  • The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
    67-69
    Views:
    128

    The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

    The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

  • Interactive evaluation of the main agrotechnical factors in rape production
    71-79
    Views:
    76

    Our polifactorial rape research was carried out at Látókép Research Centre of Debreceni Egyetem AMTC, 15 km away from Debrecen. The aim was to study the unique effect and the interactive effect of more factors. The research factors were the following: cultivation, time of sowing and nutrient supply. Soil moisture datas proved unambiguously that increasing amounts of chemical fertilizer raise the water consumption of rape, lack of water in fertilized plots were always bigger then the water deficit in control plots. The highest amount of water deficit was experienced in the case of arable plots. However, increasing amounts of chemical fertilizers raised the amount of yield proportionately. We experienced yield depression only in the case of arable plots at the highest level of chemical fertilization. In polifactorial rape research sowing of 24th August 2007 of 2007/2008 was the most optimal in point of the amount of yield. This is most-significant in the case of loosening tillage and disking tillage plots, while the plots of ploughing lag behind those two in point of average yield. We experienced the biggest differences of yield in the case of different tillage plots of sowing on 24t August 2007. Still not even the plot with the highest average reached the limit of 4 tons, which can be attributed to high rate of lodging and the harvest loss caused by this. The biggest amount of yield was experienced in the case of sowing of 24th August 2007, with the highest level of chemical fertilization at loosening tillage plot (3930 kg/ha). We can observe big differences between the tillage methods; plots of loosening show a much better average yield then plots of disking and ploughing tillage. Considering the first observed crop year we can state that alternative tillage methods do have a future in rape growing of Hungary. 

  • Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
    27-31
    Views:
    158

    The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

    Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

    In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

  • Rye plant parameters in the Westsik crop rotation experiment
    39-45
    Views:
    112

    Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, rye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).

  • The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
    21-26
    Views:
    183

    We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together in 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.

    Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).

  • Soil Biological Activity within Integrated and Ecological Management of Soil
    47-52
    Views:
    76

    The effects of the integrated (IS) and ecological (ES) management of soil on chosen parameters of soil biological activity were investigated in the period 1999-2000. The following characteristics were determined: biomass of microorganisms (Cmic), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), an amount of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (Nbiol), and nitrification intensity. Soil samples were collected from a stationary field experiment established in 1990 on gley brown soil at the Experimental Station of Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra. For each field with a different crop rotations two fertilization treatments were selected: (a) no fertilization and (b) use of manure for silage maize and, within IS, also mineral fertilizers. There was a statistically significant difference at α = 0.05 in the amount of biologically released nitrogen (Nbiol) between both systems and in the nitrification intensity in favour of ES. A higher amount of microbial biomass (Cmic) was noted for ES but without statistical significance. Cultivated crops and the timing of soil sampling were found to have the greatest effect on all the parameters observed in individual experimental years and within the two systems of soil management.

  • Complex appreciation of agrotechnikal factors of sweet corn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.)
    77-81
    Views:
    111

    Three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and the effect of two different genotypes on the yields of sweet corn was studied, in the dry and warm crop-year of 2009 on a chernozem soil in the County of Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out on the Látókép Research Station of Debrecen University. The experiment involved two sowing times (21 of April and 19 of May), six fertilizer levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise). Four plant density levels, 45 thousand ha-1, 55 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1 and 75 thousand ha-1 were used. In the early sowing time the highest yield was obtained with 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N120+PK treatment of Jumbo (18169 kg ha-1), while the maximum yield of Enterprise was 17818 kg ha-1 with 75 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N90+PK dose. In case of the late sowing time both hybrids gave the highest yield with 75 thousand ha-1 plant density level and N30 +PK
    treatment, with a crop yield of 13143 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) and 14324 kg ha-1, ( Enterprise). 

  • The effect of NPK treatments on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    31-34
    Views:
    174

    In this study the effect of N, P and K nutrients on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. Samples were also harvested from four experimental stations of the Hungarian national long-term fertilization trials. These are the following: Bicsérd, Iregszemcse, Karcag, and Putnok. Plant samples were collected in 2005 which was very wet. Our results from Nagyhörcsök were compared with the Cu and Fe content of samples which were harvested from control plots of other experimental stations. The Cu and Fe content of grain samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by digestion with HNO3-H2O2 solution. All data were subjected to ANOVA, and when significant differences (P<0.05) were detected, Duncan’s test was performed to allow separation of means.

    The main conclusions are as follows: Cu and Fe content of wheat grains was higher and higher in every NPK treatments. Samples were harvested from the control plots of Iregszemcse and Bicsérd have higher Cu content than the treated samples from Nagyhörcsök.

  • Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    211-219
    Views:
    163

    Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resistance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

    This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

  • Foliar treatments of Sugar beet
    55-59
    Views:
    93

    The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active agents. Treatments were replicated four times.
    We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
    We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments. 

  • Change of mineral and organic nitrogen forms in a long term fertilization experiment (literature)
    43-47
    Views:
    112

    The research topic has timeliness, since the rational utilization and protection of the soil, besides the conservation of its diverse functions is part of the sustainable development. Research of the long-term experiments is esentially important, because it can model the term effects in the same place, under the same conditions. If we want to get accurate informations about the occured changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest. Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms, it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only only a low percentage of the total nitrogent content can be used directly by plants in the soil. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it get into the soil by the fertilization. The plants incorporote the mineral nitrogen into our bodies. This is how nitrogen turnover is realized when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

    The purpose of our paper is to make a literature before our research.

  • Effect of agrotechnical factors on the activity of urease enzyme in a long term fertlization experiment
    43-48
    Views:
    126

    The soil is a natural resource, the fertility preservation is an important part of the sustainable development. We have to monitor the transformation dinamics of the organic nitrogen-containing substances, to get accurate information about the changes of the nitrogen cycle in the soil.

    Physical and chemical properties of the soil and the microorganism effect on the organic matter in the soil – in addition to the composition of organic matter. Wide variety of extracellular enzymes are present in this decomposition. These enzymes help in the transformation of the macromolecules to transforming low molecular weight compounds so they will be available during the assimilation.

    The urease enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3. The urease is widely spread in the nature, it is present in the microorganisms, plants and animals.

    We found that the soil moisture content, the rotation and the fertilization affect to the amount of urease in spring. Furthermore, we get significant difference between the irrigated and non irrigated samples in the second period of the year. Based on our results we can state that the activity of urease was higher in spring 2014.

    The objective of our study was to present how the different agronomic factors affect on the activity of urease in a long term fertilizationexperiment.

  • The study of the fertilizing effect of wheat straw ash in a greenhouse experiment
    47-51
    Views:
    172

    The effect of wheat straw ash as a fertlizizer was studied in a pot experiment with an acidic sandy loam soil (pHKCl=4.9) with weak K and P supply. The test plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The treatments were the following: 1. control untreated soil, 2. NPK fertilizer, 3. small dose of ash (1.4 g kg-1), 4 large dose of ash (2.8 g kg-1), 5. small dose ash completed with NP fertilizers. Soil parameters (pHH2O, pHKCl, ammoinum-lactate soluble P, K, 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble PO43--P, K, Mn, Cu, Zn ) and plant parameters (yield, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn uptake) were investigated. Based on the analysis of the straw ash sample and the results of pot experiment it can be stated that the wheat straw ash is suitable for the fertilization of the studied soil. The small dose ash completed with NP resulted in the largest yield increment (43%). In order of the treatments the pHKCl changes to: 4.9, 4.8, 5.2, 5.8, 5.1. As the N : P2O5 : K2O ratio is 0 : 1: 3.5 in the wheat straw ash sample, to reach optimal yield ash should be completed with N and P.

  • Determining elements of variety-specific maize production technology
    157-161
    Views:
    62

    Our aim was to work out such new maize fertilizer methods and models which can reduce the harmful effects of fertilization, can
    maintain the soil fertility and can moderate the yield fluctuation (nowadays 50-60 %).
    The soil of our experimental projects was meadow soil. The soil could be characterized by high clay content and pour phosphorus and
    medium potassium contents. In the last decade, out of ten years six years were dry and hot in our region. So the importance of crop-rotation
    is increasing and we have to strive for using the appropriate crop rotation.
    The yields of maize in monoculture crop rotation decreased by 1-3 t ha-1 in each dry year during the experiment (1983, 1990, 1992,
    1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2007). The most favourable forecrop of maize was wheat, medium was the biculture crop rotation
    and the worst crop rotation was the monoculture.
    There is a strong correlation between the sowing time and the yield of maize hybrids, but this interactive effect can be modified by the
    amount and distribution of precipitation in the vegetation period. At the early sowing time, the grain moistures were 5-12 % lower compared
    to the late sowing time and 4-5 % lower compared to the optimum sowing treatment.
    There are great differences among the plant density of different maize hybrids. There are hybrids sensitive to higher plant density and
    there are hybrids with wide and narrow optimum plant densities.
    The agro-ecological optimum fertilizer dosage of hybrids with a longer season (FAO 400-500) was N 30-40 kg ha-1 higher in favourable
    years as compared to early hybrids.
    We can summarize our results by saying that we have to use hybrid-specific technologies in maize production. In the future, we have to
    increase the level of inputs and have to apply the best appropriate hybrids and with respect to the agroecologial conditions, we can better
    utilize the genetic yield potential.

  • Study of factors controlling the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable Norg fraction
    437-449
    Views:
    180
    The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows:
    The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management.
    The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter.
    Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well.
    The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
  • Early evaluation of use of fermented chicken manure products in practice of apple nutrient management
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    According to the Green Deal efforts, the importance and relevance of organic fertilization will increase in the near future. Therefore, the investigation of the effects of different organic fertilizers on soil productivity and nutrient supply is a priority area of agricultural research. Organic fertilizer experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard at Debrecen-Pallag. In the trial Pinova cultivar was used. In this study, two different fermented chicken manure products were added to the soil (in 20 cm depth) to test their effects on soil nutrient status, plant uptake and fruit quality. It was found that the applied treatments slightly increased the pH and nutrient levels in almost all cases, but significant effect was not observed in all treatments compared to the control. Leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) were measured in the experiment. Leaf nutrient status was not affected by the fermented chicken manure treatments. However, used treatments had strong effects on the fruit characteristics and inner parameters, such as fruit diameter and Brix value. Moreover, it was established that the applied organic fertilizers increased the yield significantly.