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  • Economic questions of precision maize production on chernozem soil

    It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common implementation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing  technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
    of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
    During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies. 

  • Random regression models for genetic evaluation of performance of the Hungarian show-jumping horse population

    The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for show-jumping competition performance using random regression model. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. The database contained 272 951 starts of 8020 horses. Identity number and gender of the horse, rider, competition date, the level of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. Competition levels were categorized into five groups. Weighted – competition level used – square root transformed placing was used to measure performance of horses. The random regression model included fixed effects for gender, year and place of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment.

    Later performance of show-jumping horses measured with weighted square root ranks is less influenced by rider and permanent environmental effects than performance at the beginning of a horse’s sporting career. Heritability increased continuously from 6.3 years of age (2296 age in days), values were in the range of 0.07 and 0.37. Higher heritability was found in later ages. Weak genetic and phenotypic correlation was found between the early 4–5–6 years of age and older (7, 8, 8+) age classes. From 8.5 years of age (3132 days old) there were strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between neighboring age groups. For the same age classes moderate and strong genetic and phenotypic correlation was found. Genetic correlation between 13.5 years of age and older horses was very strong.

  • Nitrogen Content of Hungarian Soils and Nitrogen Fertilization

    For crop production and agricultural production, the most important natural resource is the soil that can optionally renew. Paralelly with this, soil plays a major role in the geological and biological cycle of elements. As a result of the big (geological) and small (biological) element cycles, the elements and combines neccessary for organisms can accumulate in the soil creating suitable living conditions for plants and other organisms. Soil is a heterogenous system both horizontally and vertically, and soil constituents show great variety in all the three dimensions, in addition, most of the parameters can also change between two examination dates. When talking about the factors influencing plant production, one should take into account this variation and heterogenity in time and space. When making fertilization recommendations, these factors should all be considered. In any consultation system, most of the mistakes and errors made are due to the unsatisfying soil testing and the negligence of soil heterogenity. In the practice of fertilization the biggest mistake is the improper soil sampling, then comes the methodical mistake of soil testing, which is followed by the inaccuracy of instrumental analysis and the subjectivity of result evaluation, but the latter two are negligible compared to the others. Under normal, i.e. production conditions, the quantity and distribution of nutrients in the soil are greatly dependent upon the applied technology, the amount and form of the applied natural and artificial fertilizers and the quality of fertilization.
    Fertilization recommendations are needed because in the layer which is accessible for plant roots only a part of the nutrient content is available for plants in a specific production cycle. An illustration of this is that though the upper 1 m layer of an average chernozem soil contains more than 5000 kg N, 12000 kg K2O and 1500 kg P2O5 (form of expression mostly used in Hungary), the application of fertilizer doses which are just fractions of these quantities is essential. This is due to the fact that the available amount of the total nutrient content depends from the quality of soil, the environmental factors (the physical and chemical qualities of the soil) and the specific nutrient’s qualities (solubility, adsorption). Knowledge of these processes and the examination of the factors influencing the actual nutrient content are vital for working out a fertilization practice, which does not put more strain on the environment than neccessary.

    All of the above mentioned should be considered when applying inputs in the fields. In a well-functioning practice that considers the economic and environmental conditions (unfortunately the present production and economic conditions do not enable an appropriate level and degree), three nutrients are supplemented generally (and were supplemented in the last decades): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
    Studying the nutrient balance of the Hungarian field production’s last hundred years, we can draw some interesting conclusions.
    The nutrient balance became positive for nitrogen and potassium in the second half of the 1960’s, while for phosphorus it was positive from the first half of the 1960’s and this period lasted until the end of the 1980’s.
    Neither before the 1960’s, nor since the 1990’s has the amount of nutrients supplemented in a specific year reached the amount of the nutrient uptake of the same year.

  • Species-specificity of the glutathione reduced form accumulation in the arboreal plants, testing influence of industrial emissions

    Conducted are researches of dynamics of glutathione reduced form maintenance in the leaves of arboreal plants which grow in the zones of different level of contamination by industrial emissions of“Red Lead Factory” LTD and ArselorMittal Kryvyi Rig. For comparison, similar  investigations were conducted in the intact Botanic Garden in s.c.t. Sofievka. Findings testify to absence of negative influence of industrial emissions and, thus, the arboretum of botanical garden also can be examined as conditional control. It was stated that it is set a few strategies of active oxygen forms and their metabolites deactivation, appearing in cells under action of environment negative factors. To our opinion, fluctuation of glutathione reduced form maintenance can examine as an index of plants stability, on which investigational species can be distributed on steady and moderato steady.

  • Environmental Management Research on the Berettyó River

    Our department is involved in ongoing research into the hydrological and ecological interplay of the Berettyó River.
    In the first part of our study we classified the Hungarian section of the river from ecological and hydrological standpoints. We determined three typical parts of the river: a sandy and gravely bottom, a middle part with a sandy and muddy bottom, and a lower part, with muddy bottom. In theese sampling areas we measured and established the more important static and dynamic hydrological, physical and chemical characteristics.
    For the planned research we did a primary estimation of the environmental condition of theese sampling areas, on the basis of applicable biological and ecological indication methods.

  • Hydro-cultural growing of cut flower in greenhouse

    The closed system hydro-cultural growing is environmentfriendly,  the chemical fertilizer used for nourishing material supply does not contaminate the soil water and it is possible to eliminate the chemical materials accumulating during the disinfection of the soil getting into the environment. It can be mechanized and regulated well so the optimum growing conditions can be fixed for the plant and as a consequence higher yield can be reached both for the carnation and for Zantedeschia and for Rosa. Growing method with saving both the nourishing material and the water. Taking all the above into consideration timing is easier and better, it can be programmed better than the traditional chemo-cultural growing.

  • Applicability of precision weed detection technologies

    In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.

  • The effect of different shading net on the Quantum Efficiency of PS II in chilli pepper cultivar ‘Star Flame’

    The study was undertaken to identify the effect of different shading net on the quantum efficiency of PS II on ‘Star Flame’ chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) over a period of time cultivated under plastic house environment. ‘Star Flame’ pepper was grown under red shading net and samples without shading were used as control. Analysis of photosynthetic activity revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between Fv/Fm values in control and red shading at the end of July (p = 0.031) after the first harvest. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) used in the detection of early stress in plants.


  • Agronomical and Economic Evaluation of Different Soil Cultivation Systems

    In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
    We examined the production costs in four different production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002: 15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
    All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

  • Sustainable energy management – the importence of the renewable energy sources, their difficulties and chances

    The biggest question of the century standing before us is that if people will be able to direct the development to sustainable direction. One of the components of global problems threatening
    us is the pressure that the energy management puts on the environment, which can be significantly lowered by utilizing renewable energy sources. The aim of my study is to draft the
    model of a sustainable energy management, putting the renewable energy sources into it in a sensible way, regarding the possibilities of Hungary.

  • Impact of tillage systems on maize emergence

    In Europe, there has been a significant change in the way tillage is approached in recent years. This change is due to a growing awareness among farmers, politicians and society as a whole that soil is not a renewable resource in itself. From an agricultural point of view, the greatest impact on soil condition can be achieved through the use of the applied tillage systems.  My research takes this approach as a basis when examining the different tillage systems and their impact on the environment. In this context, conventional and a variety of no-tillage systems are examined in this paper. As a next step, it is examined how the environmental conditions created by the different tillage systems influence the emergence of maize hybrids. The analyses are carried out in a multi-factorial, long-term tillage field experiment. The same batch of the same hybrid seed was sown in several crop years, and the effects of environmental conditions on the emergence process were examined. Environmental effects and emergence-related uptake were measured in the examined plots. Measurements of environmental effects included air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature measured at seeding depth, as well as % cover of stem residue on the surface in the treated plots. The first emergence time measurements of the sown crop in the plots of each treatment were compared and relationships between these factors were investigated.

  • L’incubation et l’éclosion des oeufs des vers à soie de chêne Antheraea pernyi Guer (Bombycidae)

    In this paper we studied optimal conditions which need to be fulfilled in order to have successful incubation and hatching of eggs of the species Antheraea pernyi Guer.
    The incubation of the eggs of this species implies a proper environment: temperature of 18-21oC, relative humidity of 80%, unvarying light, aeration 2 or 3 times a day and a density of 50 g eggs for a 20/50 cm area.
    In these conditions, the incubation of the first generation lasts 10-12 days and of the second generation up to 8-10 days. The second generation needs higher temperatures (22-26oC) and higher humidity (optimal value 90%).
    In this species, hatching lasts 6-7 days, with a maximum during the second day; it takes place especially early in the morning.

  • Conceptions regarding sustainable agriculture – the national sustainable development strategy

    The task of the national sustainable development strategy is to provide a long term conception for the economy and society, so that this might function and develop in harmony with the environment. Creating the conditions for sustainable agricultural production requires the elaboration and implementation of long-term programs spanning generations. The objective is to find a compromise between the conceptions appearing in the long-term and the short-term programs.
    In Hungary, several principles, conceptions and proposals have been suggested regarding sustainable agriculture. In the present study, I intend to systematize the above mentioned principles and conceptions, and compare them to the conceptions regarding agriculture in the national strategies of the EU member states. Furthermore, I examine to what extent the agricultural policy of the European Union supports the conceptions regarding agriculture in the strategies. This topic deserves special attention, as the Hungarian national sustainable development strategy is being prepared and is supposed to be finished by the end of 2005.

  • Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization

    The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

    Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

  • Indicators and main motivations of environmental awareness in the enterprises of the Hungarian processing industry

    This paper focuses on the corporate environmental performance and its motivating factors. The background of the study is a questionnaire survey covers 82 Hungarian manufacturing companies. The identification of the environmental performance based on the study of György Pataki and László Radácsi who create a group of environmental indicators. The motivating factors are several stakeholders of the companies who have affect on an organization's environmental actions. These motivations can be divided into internal and external factors. According to the questionnaire survey the combination of internal and external factors seems to the most important to the better environmental performance.

  • Evaluation of IT-Investments

    An informatical innovation is essentially a private business in the life of a venture but the ability of evolution and adaptability of ventures is remarkable for the national economy too. This is why it is important to observe the economical effects of IT investments. The introduction of an information system – as in the cases of other investments – requires pre- and post-calculations for payback of fixed assest, thrift and profitability. The operation of an information system means not only one-off acquisition of instruments and intangible assets, but requires continuous development, version control and improvement of hardware in the sake of conservation. There is a high rate of depreciation of IT investments in Hungary, because such goods change too quickly, together with the economic environment. If the conservation of IT instrument value wanted one has to make new expansions continually. IT specialists have determined some indices, one of which is Total cost of Ownership, which is an important indicator for investment analysis. In practice, there are some other models and methods we can adopt in our analysis. In this paper, I collected several relevant and usable methods for pre analysis of IT projects. Management can adopt these models in his investment process to make sound decisions.

  • The study of environment-conscious attitudes in the food-industry companies of the Northern-Plain Region

    that the world of business, profit and work is not a hermetically closed area, but is in interaction with its closer and wider surroundings, ultimately with society and the natural environment.
    The affectedness of each sector and company varies. To be able to tackle these problems, first and foremost the commitment of companies towards environmentally conscious attitude is necessary, which can form as a result of inner obligation or outer pressure. Thus companies will be concerned to measure and quantify the environmental effects of all activities.
    Some of the companies have already given their votes for environment-protection. Both internationally and at home it seems that the responsible leaders of more and more companies build social, human rights and environmental protection considerations in the objects and values of the company apart from profit maximization.
    In my thesis I present the data gathered from a questionnaire survey carried out with food-industry companies in the Northern-Plain Region. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the commitment of companies towards environmental protection via solid data. The fact that more than half of the respondents found the positive effects of environmental protection of little importance and that environmental protection was the last among the aims of some companies reflected greatly in the following outcomes.

  • Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region

    Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

  • Evaluation of technologies and resources from the spatial and social aspect

    The basic functioning of the world is mostly led by negative trends. One of the fundamental reasons for this phenomenon is that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) do not act properly and in the proper structure by means of the produced products and services. Therefore, the examination of technologies and resources is a key question of our world and development from various aspects. Technologies convey all positive and negative impacts which can be regarded as the fundamental reasons and causes of harmonious or disharmonious development. For this reason, the role of technologies in development and harmonious functioning is of paramount importance.

    As a final conclusion, we established that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) are interpreted as impact conveyors which predominate by means of products and services in a way that their relation system is determined. By using the thermodynamic interpretation which is the basis of the functioning of the world, we built a system consisting of 14 elements to evaluate different technologies, to interpret its functioning and to develop positive interactions and trends.

  • A Few Thoughts About the Implementation of Sustainability in Hungary

    UN Conference on Environment and Development óta (1992 Rio de Janeiro) a sustainable development fogalma bevonult a nemzetközi szervezetek és a nemzeti kormányok programjaiba. A fenntartható fejlődés megvalósítására sok országban stratégiákat dolgoztak ki. Magyarországon ilyen stratégiai a dokumentum ma még nincs, de valószínű, hogy rövidesen elkészül. A szerző ehhez az előkészítő folyamathoz kíván hozzájárulni javaslataival. A fenntarthatóság (sustainability) megvalósításához hosszú időre és konkrét cselekvési programok összefüggő láncolatára van szükség. A szerző javaslatai szerint a következő 3-5 évben tíz prioritást célszerű támogatni a kormány és a civil társadalom részéről:
    1. Környezetvédelem
    2. Környezeti nevelés és tudatformálás
    3. A szemét, a hulladék eltávolítása és hasznosítása
    4. Környezet-egészségügy
    5. Környezetbiztonság
    6. A közlekedés korszerűsítése
    7. Agrár-környezetvédelem
    8. Környezetbarát technológiák és termékek
    9. Lakossági részvétel a döntés-előkészítésben és döntéshozatalban
    10. Az állami és önkormányzati költségvetések szerepe

  • The effect of different herbicide on the number and activity of living microorganisms in soil

    Sustainable plant growth, considering the difficulties of weed elimination, cannot be effective without the application of herbicides. However, these chemicals have enormous ecological implications, including effects on the microbiological communities of soils. It is advisable to use herbicides that have minimal secondary effects on the environment and soil-living microorganisms. In contrast, herbicides with prolonged growth stimulating or inhibiting effects are not suitable, because both types have strong influences on the number and activity of bacteria, thus causing changes in the ecological equilibrium.
    Preceding small plot experiments, laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of herbicides used in maize cultures on the number of bacteria and growth of microscopic fungi.
    Substances that were observed to have stronger influences were applied in small plot experiments set up in the experimental garden of the Department of Plant Protection of the University of Debrecen. We studied the effects of four herbicides (Acenit A88EC, Frontier 900 EC, Merlin SC and Wing EC) on the microbiological properties of the soil. These herbicides were used in different concentrations in maize culture, and we investigated the effects in different soil layers.
    In the laboratory experiments, we determined the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi and examined the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum on peptone-glucose agar containing herbicides.
    During the small plot experiments, soil samples were collected 3 times a year from 2-20 cm depth. The total numbers of bacteria and microscopic fungi were determined by plate dilution method, while the method of most probable number (Pochon method) was used to determine the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and cellulose decomposing bacteria. To evaluate the microbiological activity of the soil samples we measured carbon-dioxide release (after 10 days incubation), nitrate production (after 14 days incubation) and the concentration of C and N in the biomass.
    We can summarize our results as follows:
    • In laboratory experiments, herbicides caused a decrease in the number of bacteria and inhibited the growth of microscopic fungi.
    • Frontier 900 EC and Acenit A 880 EC had the strongest inhibiting effect on microorganisms.
    • In small plot experiments, herbicide treatment decreased the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi.
    • Herbicides caused a significant increase in the number of nitrifying and cellulose decomposing bacteria.
    • Different herbicides containing the same active compound had similar influences on soil microoorganisms.
    • A significant increase was observed in the physiological processes of tolerant microorganisms surviving the effects of herbicides

  • Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)

    The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
    The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservation tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
    chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
    the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
    enzymes and CO2 production.
    Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
    dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
    especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
    higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
    very important in this soil type.
    According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
    chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

  • The Role of transformal leadership in local governments’ efficiency

    Local governments had to respond to the challenges of the dynamically changing environment. A key element of the rapid adaptation lies in the right leadership. The local governments also recognized that the traditional management principles are found not to be effective in today's economic, political and social challenges.

    The employees of the organizations are successful in the attainment of leadership, which are planning the next year, performance-based, as well as the leading is diplomatic, charismatic-development, group integrators. The investigated local governments’ middle level leaders believe that in the current economic and political situation only those organizations able to keep up, which emphasize the trans-formal leadership.

  • Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.

  • Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production

    Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas other substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
    Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
    In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
    You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.