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  • Evaluation of technologies and resources from the spatial and social aspect
    73-75
    Views:
    175

    The basic functioning of the world is mostly led by negative trends. One of the fundamental reasons for this phenomenon is that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) do not act properly and in the proper structure by means of the produced products and services. Therefore, the examination of technologies and resources is a key question of our world and development from various aspects. Technologies convey all positive and negative impacts which can be regarded as the fundamental reasons and causes of harmonious or disharmonious development. For this reason, the role of technologies in development and harmonious functioning is of paramount importance.

    As a final conclusion, we established that the different technologies (hardware, software, resources) are interpreted as impact conveyors which predominate by means of products and services in a way that their relation system is determined. By using the thermodynamic interpretation which is the basis of the functioning of the world, we built a system consisting of 14 elements to evaluate different technologies, to interpret its functioning and to develop positive interactions and trends.

  • A Few Thoughts About the Implementation of Sustainability in Hungary
    41-44
    Views:
    60

    UN Conference on Environment and Development óta (1992 Rio de Janeiro) a sustainable development fogalma bevonult a nemzetközi szervezetek és a nemzeti kormányok programjaiba. A fenntartható fejlődés megvalósítására sok országban stratégiákat dolgoztak ki. Magyarországon ilyen stratégiai a dokumentum ma még nincs, de valószínű, hogy rövidesen elkészül. A szerző ehhez az előkészítő folyamathoz kíván hozzájárulni javaslataival. A fenntarthatóság (sustainability) megvalósításához hosszú időre és konkrét cselekvési programok összefüggő láncolatára van szükség. A szerző javaslatai szerint a következő 3-5 évben tíz prioritást célszerű támogatni a kormány és a civil társadalom részéről:
    1. Környezetvédelem
    2. Környezeti nevelés és tudatformálás
    3. A szemét, a hulladék eltávolítása és hasznosítása
    4. Környezet-egészségügy
    5. Környezetbiztonság
    6. A közlekedés korszerűsítése
    7. Agrár-környezetvédelem
    8. Környezetbarát technológiák és termékek
    9. Lakossági részvétel a döntés-előkészítésben és döntéshozatalban
    10. Az állami és önkormányzati költségvetések szerepe

  • The effect of different herbicide on the number and activity of living microorganisms in soil
    76-82
    Views:
    119

    Sustainable plant growth, considering the difficulties of weed elimination, cannot be effective without the application of herbicides. However, these chemicals have enormous ecological implications, including effects on the microbiological communities of soils. It is advisable to use herbicides that have minimal secondary effects on the environment and soil-living microorganisms. In contrast, herbicides with prolonged growth stimulating or inhibiting effects are not suitable, because both types have strong influences on the number and activity of bacteria, thus causing changes in the ecological equilibrium.
    Preceding small plot experiments, laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of herbicides used in maize cultures on the number of bacteria and growth of microscopic fungi.
    Substances that were observed to have stronger influences were applied in small plot experiments set up in the experimental garden of the Department of Plant Protection of the University of Debrecen. We studied the effects of four herbicides (Acenit A88EC, Frontier 900 EC, Merlin SC and Wing EC) on the microbiological properties of the soil. These herbicides were used in different concentrations in maize culture, and we investigated the effects in different soil layers.
    In the laboratory experiments, we determined the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi and examined the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum on peptone-glucose agar containing herbicides.
    During the small plot experiments, soil samples were collected 3 times a year from 2-20 cm depth. The total numbers of bacteria and microscopic fungi were determined by plate dilution method, while the method of most probable number (Pochon method) was used to determine the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and cellulose decomposing bacteria. To evaluate the microbiological activity of the soil samples we measured carbon-dioxide release (after 10 days incubation), nitrate production (after 14 days incubation) and the concentration of C and N in the biomass.
    We can summarize our results as follows:
    • In laboratory experiments, herbicides caused a decrease in the number of bacteria and inhibited the growth of microscopic fungi.
    • Frontier 900 EC and Acenit A 880 EC had the strongest inhibiting effect on microorganisms.
    • In small plot experiments, herbicide treatment decreased the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi.
    • Herbicides caused a significant increase in the number of nitrifying and cellulose decomposing bacteria.
    • Different herbicides containing the same active compound had similar influences on soil microoorganisms.
    • A significant increase was observed in the physiological processes of tolerant microorganisms surviving the effects of herbicides

  • Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)
    61-66
    Views:
    75

    The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
    The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservation tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
    chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
    the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
    enzymes and CO2 production.
    Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
    dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
    especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
    higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
    very important in this soil type.
    According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
    chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

  • The Role of transformal leadership in local governments’ efficiency
    33-41
    Views:
    138

    Local governments had to respond to the challenges of the dynamically changing environment. A key element of the rapid adaptation lies in the right leadership. The local governments also recognized that the traditional management principles are found not to be effective in today's economic, political and social challenges.

    The employees of the organizations are successful in the attainment of leadership, which are planning the next year, performance-based, as well as the leading is diplomatic, charismatic-development, group integrators. The investigated local governments’ middle level leaders believe that in the current economic and political situation only those organizations able to keep up, which emphasize the trans-formal leadership.

  • Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics
    5-8
    Views:
    200

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.

  • Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production
    116-119
    Views:
    69

    Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas other substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
    Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
    In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
    You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.

  • Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops
    87-92
    Views:
    142

    Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient content of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

  • Biofuel production and its quality standards
    137-141
    Views:
    110

    The increasing consumption due to the decreasing amount of fossile energy resources, as well as the increasing fuel prices and living standard will justify the better utilisation of the opportunities lying in biofuel production. Certain countries produce biofuels for their own use or they even export them. However, there are countries which have not decided which feedstock and technology to use. Biofuel – mainly biodiesel and bioethanol – use greatly contributes to environmental protection, decreased CO2 emission and reduced greenhouse effect.

  • Microbiological quality of bulk tank raw milk from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary
    105-112
    Views:
    289

    Two main channels have been identified to be responsible for microbiological contamination of raw milk and milk products. Firstly, contamination has occurred due to udder infection from the cow or the blood which harbours most bacteria that come in contact with the raw milk. Secondly, via external factors (may include faeces, skin, contaminated water, environment etc.) which are associated with the operation of milking. There is direct contact with the milk and/or surfaces before, during or after the milking, posing public health risk and economic decline. The aim of this study was to examine the bacteriological quality of bulk tank raw milk samples collected from two different size dairy farms (Farm 1 and Farm 2) of different housing forms (cubicle loose and deep litter) in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary in July, 2017. Three samples were taken from each farm, and the total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, and yeast and mould count were determined in them.

    The results clearly showed low level of all measured bacteria group load in Farm 1 samples in comparison to Farm 2 with the exception of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) which represented high level in general, indicating significant difference (P<0.05). The mean value of total plate count in Farm 2 samples was higher (1.0 × 105 CFU/mL) than Farm 1 samples (2.8 × 104 CFU/mL). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in mean count of coliforms in raw milk samples between Farm 1 and Farm 2. Similarly, results of E. coli were significantly different (P<0.05) with mean count of 1.44 × 102 CFU/mL and 2.02 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively.

    Results of Staphylococcus aureus also showed significant difference (P<0.05) with mean count of 9.7 × 101 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and 6.28 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 2. The mean of mould count recorded was 1.07 × 102 CFU/mL and 4.93 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively. The recorded mean of yeast count was 1.68 × 103 CFU/mL and 3.41 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively; however, both farms showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in terms of mean of mould and yeast count. Although Farm 2 produced six times lower milk quantity than Farm 1, the measured microbial parameters were high. Both farms’ microbiological numbers were higher above the permitted limit values as stated by Regulation (EC) No 853/2004, Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.).

    This could be an indication of non-conformance to effective GMP, ineffective pre–milking disinfection or udder preparation, poor handling and storage practice, time and temperature abuse and inadequate Food Safety Management System Implementation. Therefore, our recommendation is as follows; establish control measures for pre- and postharvest activities involved in the milking process which would be an effective approach to reduce contamination of the raw milk by pathogenic microorganisms from these farms, strict sanitation regime and hygiene protocol be employed and applied to cows, all equipment, contact surfaces and minimize handling of the milk prior, during and after milking. This will also serve as scientific information to the producers for continual improvement in their operations.

  • The Influence of Cropyear on the Yield and Yield Safety of Different Sunflower Hybrids
    68-73
    Views:
    98

    The effectiveness of plant production is basically influenced by the ecological, biological and agricultural technical factors. There are many kinds of sunflower hybrids which differres in their adaptability. If we want to increase the efficiency of sunflower production, we have to design different technologies for each hybrid. In the last decade, the range of sunflower hybrids increased exceedingly. This is the reason why we have to do experiments with them and examine what the relationship among genotypes, the environment and the hybrids is.
    We made our experiments at the Látóképi Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen. We had 57 hybrids in 2001, and 44 in 2002 and 2003. We used only just those hybrids which were planted in every year.
    In 2001 the months at summer were hot and the distribution of rainfall was extreme. In the beginning of the year 2002, the summer was also hot. During the abscessing period, the temperature was under the 30 years average and the rainless period was typical. In 2003, the temperature was extrame and the rainfall during the growing season was dry. The yield average which was determined after the three years in the very early group averaged 3998,9 kg/ha. The best hybrids were the LG 5385 (4273,3 kg/ha) and the Magóg (4134,4 kg/ha). The early group’s average was 4129,4 kg/ha. The best hybrid was the Astor in the early group. The middle group’s average was 4169 kg/ha and the Zoltán had a better yield than average (4238 kg/ha). In the confectionary group the Iregi szürke csíkos (3579,9 kg/ha) reached the best yield and it is above the average to it’s group (3225 kg/ha).
    To estimate the results, we used factor analysis. Its results allow us to say that rainfall first and second part of June has a negative influence on yield. Aswith to the yield, yield safety is also important to know, which shows the adaptability of the hybrid.
    After examining the CV% in the three years we can say that the most stable hybrids were in the very early group Samanta (10,94 CV%) and the LG 5385 (12 CV%) In the early group, the most reliable hybrids were Altesse RM (6,9 CV%) and the Astor (10,8 CV%) and the end in the middle group the Lympil (10 CV%) and in the confectionary group the Birdy (9,8 CV%) and IS 8004 (12 CV%) were the best.
    After examining yield and yield safety, our conclusions are that in the Hajdúsági löszhát, the very early group LG 5385, early group Altesse RM, middle group Lympil and the parandial group IS 8004 hybrid had the highest yield and the best yield stability.

  • The supply of Liget-Thermal Spa and Experience Bath, according the opinion of the guests
    199-205
    Views:
    80

    During the last decades health, body and soul control became important issues. In the modern world this values are closely connected to the term of success, because we can be successful in every aspect of life: work, and personal life, if we can maintain our health, and fitness in a long run. From that comes that modern people are willing to spend money and time to take an active part in sporty but relaxing activities in a healthy environment in order to keep their fitness or just feel themselves well.
    In my study I will show the main motivating factors and demand elements of wellness and healthtourism, according the opinions of the visitors of Liget - Thermal Spa and Experience Bath. I will introduce different services that are suitable for satisfying this demand, furthermore we can get an insight by the results of questionnaire survey, how the motivating factors and the demand changes in case of different age groups.

  • The methodology of the Hooded Crow’s (Corvus cornix L.) colour ringing and the previous results
    43-48
    Views:
    148

    The Hooded Crow (CorvuscornixL.) have moved in several Hungarian cities in the last few decades. It is breeding in Debrecen since 1959, and nowdays it’s presence can be detected at all points of the city, it is an permanent breeding species of the bird fauna. Our knowledge about the nature of urban races, including motion patterns, area fidelity is sufficiently incomplete. The aim of our research is to answer these questions by using our colour-ring program. In this study we present in details the methodology of Hooded Crow’s colour-ring program in urban area, and we also report our previous
    achievements.

  • Plant protection praxis on Hévíz Nature Conservation Area (Lake Balaton District, Hungary)
    81-83
    Views:
    141

    The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decades, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.

  • Landscape tools to support the educational use of school grounds
    63-72
    Views:
    21

    Recent years have seen an increasing emphasis on child-friendly concepts in landscape architecture and urban planning, as well as a growing emphasis on school grounds and environmental education, both in terms of pedagogy and landscape design. School grounds provide places for active engagement with the environment, for experiencing what is taught in class, and, are therefore of particular importance for education and for building children's connection with nature. The aim of this research is to develop a set of landscape architecture tools that can be used to promote child-friendly and education-centered design of school grounds. The research collects and organises the different school ground features, drawing on literature research, and the analysis of the Framework Curriculum. The toolkit presented in this paper lists and evaluates each feature according to its function, its relevance to school subjects and the specific knowledge or skills it can help to acquire, its space requirements and feasibility. To conclude, school grounds offer opportunities for teaching almost any subject and can therefore be linked to educational activities in multiple ways. The results of this research are to be developed into design guidelines in order to be used by designers and teachers alike, to help develop school grounds contributing to the well-being and environmental awareness of new generations.

  • Economic Aspects of Rural Tourism
    55-71
    Views:
    69

    necessary to ensure the livelihoods of those leaving the agricultural sector and to supplement the incomes of those working in agriculture. I research rural development in four settlements in Hajdú-Bihar County, in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, all bordering Hortobágy National Park.
    There are many alternative income sources in settlements in the Hortobágy area, such as organic farming, production herbs, hungaricums, small animals and arts and crafts, as well as rural tourism. Rural tourism is not for subsistence, but a supplementary income source, mainly available during the summer time. I made a survey of rural hosts in the four examined settlements, and according to my results, I constructed a model reflecting the cost-benefit relation, as well as the payment period conditions of rural tourism. I am going to show whether it is worth dealing with rural tourism, and if yes, under what conditions. Rural tourism contributes to the maintenance of rural modes of living, in this way it has significant cultural, economic, ecological and social aspects, as well. It is crucial for settlements to create the appropriate conditions needed for joining rural tourism, if it is worth joining at all, and to realise investments for all these. Rural tourism has strict requirements for the levels of environment, infrastructure and services. Studying the Western-European practices, Hungary is lagged behind in the conditions of rural tourism and rural hosts have done their activities mainly out of necessity and not to maintain traditions. Rural tourism may result in success only by co-operation and over the long-run.

  • Environmental aspects in accounting
    127-131
    Views:
    143

    By the strengthening of the economic competition became it apparent a company can’t be valued separate, it should be examined as a complex system. In the assessment of corporate performance is increasingly emphasized the environmental performance. The relevant information of stakeholder about the environmental performance is todays an expection, For this, a management control system is needed, which provide relevant information to managers, hence facilitating the informed decision. This study highlighted, accounting systems are able to meet this demand sufficiently, the accounting means not only the usual bookkeeping, it can be interpreted as a management-controll system, which can help in the valuation of the environmental performance.

  • Research of different adjuvants and yeast dosages in honey fermentation process
    5-7
    Views:
    136

    In order to ferment honey it is necessary to add in the fermentation environment some substances with the role of adjuvants, to improve the honey must composition and to help the fermentation process. There were tested 2 different combination of adjuvants which were analyzed in the fermentation process. Also the physical and chemical properties of the final products were analyzed. After establishing the most suitable mix of adjuvants it was necessary to test the right dosage of the yeast used to metabolized sugars: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to obtain appropriate organoleptic properties.

  • Tourism and sustainability in Hungary
    135-143
    Views:
    80

    Sustainable development is a very popular conception since many years. In practice there could be many difficulties.
    Economic, social and ecological systems are too complex to see all the consequences clearly. After all, sustainable criteria are indispensable for responsible planning.
    Tourism is one of the world’s dynamically developing economic sectors. But according to this development, we have to confront with a lot of negative effects, like air pollution, or mass. With globalization, the opportunities for tourism increase: thanks to modern transport, places which were too far to be accessible before are now able to be reached. But there are consequences to this expansion. Unfortunately, growth e.g. in air transport causes considerable environmental damage.
    In today’s fast-paced world, the sanctity of nature, a soundproof environment, clean air and rural life have become increasingly important. With the growth of demand and tourism globalized, these values can damage or disappear in a short time.  So, in tourism, it is vital to project development plans with sustainable principles.
    Just as other countries, in Hungary, the development of sustainable tourism is slowly becoming a priority. Fortunately, in plans for the next few years, there appear more concrete ideas on ways to make sustainable tourism grow.
    In my study, I assess Hungary’s position in sustainable tourism, examining how sustainable tourism indicators fit in sustainable development indicators and how can we measure aims of sustainable tourism.

  • Effects of a traditional agricultural sector’s decline in less favoured areas
    109-114
    Views:
    94

    Due to the effects of economic and political transformations, privatization and accession to the EU, Hungarian agriculture has gone through significant changes in the last two decades. As a result of continuous changes in the economic and regulatory environment, producers have to plan and maintain cultivation and adapt to the changing market needs within continuously changing circumstances. These effects have resulted in a significant decline or in some cases, certain sectors have disappeared. These exercise a negative social and economic effect on all over the country, causing irreversible damages on those regions where agriculture is the only source of living. This paper discusses the effects of breakdown or disappearance of a traditional agricultural sector, namely the tobacco sector.

  • Special Investment Support Under the Agricultural Reorganisation Programme 1995-2000
    64-73
    Views:
    67

    Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportunities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
    The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.

  • The analysis of the fair data of a solar energy power plant with SPSS
    60-63
    Views:
    87

    The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
    Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, and are utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV – panels. This can be fed into a grid. At the University of Debrecen is a solar energy power plant from September 2005 in operation. The electricity performance of the incorporated PV-panels (Kyocera, Dunasolar, and Siemens) are 8.64 kW. The are of PV – panels is 110 square meter. With the aid of the data storage, the tension, current, temperature of the PV-panels, global radiation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the achievement is measured by the ac network.
    The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.

  • The influence of fertilization on the soil characteristics of a calcareous chernozem in a long term experiment
    47-52
    Views:
    75

    In the long term fertilization experiment of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Science(CAAEC) (Debrecen Látókép), the effects of a 25-year-long fertilization were examined in terms of some chemical and microbiological properties of soil. With the growing doses of fertilizers, the available nutrient content of soil increased. At the same time the pH significantly decreased, while the hidden acidity increased. Moreover, the ratio between the soil bacteria and microscopic fungi, and the occurrence of microbes also changed. The number of sensitive physiological bacteria groups decreased dramatically. These changes indicate the reactions of living organisms; they correspond to the „resistance stage” of stress effects, but in the case of nitrifying bacteria, they reach the „exhaustion stage”.

  • Estimation of the vine-shoot yield in the Gyöngyös district
    21-26
    Views:
    107

    Every year, a significant amount of vineyard prunings is generated in Hungary. Instead of utilization them, it is burned directly on the field in spite of the limitations of legalization highly pollute the environment in recent decades. The vineyard pruning itself or with other by-products from pomology and forestry can be significant amount of fuel source. However, before the planning to utilization the essential task is to estimate the potential. This study examine that how many vineyard is generated in the micro-region of Gyöngyös in every year on appointed vineyard.

    In order to vine-branch potential calculate more accurate data was necessary so the products had to be determined for all plant. Thus, the biomass resource and the utilization become plannable. As the result of the experiment we can estimate that 1,5 t/ha vineyard pruning are generated. It means more than 9 thousand tons pruning in the micro-region of Gyöngyös. This amount can be convert into fuel source more than 150 thousand GJ heating value.

    The results evince that the vineyard pruning is important fuel source in every year in the micro-region of Gyöngyös. Further usage is suggested for other regions in other size.

  • Changes in the relationship between Hungarian Grey cows (Bos primigenius taurus hungaricus) and their calves in the period from calving to four months of age
    85-90
    Views:
    108

    The ability of cows to care for their offsprings is a very important trait concerning beef cattle. Maternal instincts are highly influenced by breed, specific cow, and social and rearing environment. In 2020, at the Szamárháti farm of the Tiszatáj Public Foundation, we selected 15 dam-calf pairs and studied them for four months from the birth of the calves. We grouped calf-rearing behaviors according to strength and analyzed the related changes during the program. At the beginning of the relationship, "standing close to each other" (53%) and "suckling" (24%) characterized the pairs. After the first month, "standing or lying separated" grew by 69%, and "vocalization" by both animals fell by 66%. Even though the daily frequency of suckling decreased by 34% as the calves grew older, it remained a typical element of the relationship. Over time, the bond between the animals gradually weakened. This natural process of separation takes a month to complete.