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Evaluate the nutritional reaction at winter wheat after different forecrops
Published February 3, 2016
77-80

Our field researches took place on the Látókép test farm of Agricultural Science Centre of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, in long-term experiment, on calcareous chernozem soil, in growing season of 2014/2015. In our experiment we examined the fertilizer reaction and the yield of different winte...r wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) with grain maize and sweetcorn forecrops. According to our results, the sweetcorn forecrop strongly affected the yield. In the average of the fertilizer treatments and the varieties, after sweetcorn forecrop 6.9 t ha-1, after grain maize forecrop 5.4 t ha-1 average yield was gained. According to our data, the fertilizer reactions of the varieties were significantly different.

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The effect of fertilization and plant protection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production
Published December 15, 2019
57-63

 Sunflower is the most important oil crop in Europe which is grown on the biggest area of all the oil crops. The area of producing sunflowers in Hungary was changing to 524–704 thousand hectares in the past decade in comparison with approximately 100 thousand hectares in the 1970’s. In our experiment different sunflowe...r hybrids were examined. The doses of fertilizers were the following in 2017 and 2018: 0–30–90–150 kg ha-1 N, 0-50-90-90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 0–70–110–110 kg ha-1 K2O. Three different treatments of plant protection were used in the experiment to protect them from fungal infections. A rise in the dosage of nitrogen resulted in increasing infection. The biggest fungal infection was identified in 150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg ha-1 K2O treatment. The largest infection was measured on plots without plant protection at the highest N doses, both in leaf and disc diseases. We measured the highest 41.25% in 2017 and 53.1% in 2018 Diaporthe helianthi infection, and 24.5% in 2017 and 25.5 % in 2018 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disc infection in these plots. kg ha-1

Average yield was changing between 2.96–4.67 t ha-1 in 2017/2018. The lowest yield was obtained in the absolute control plot (without plant protection and without nutrient) in both years, which was 2.96 t ha-1 in 2017 and 3.14 t ha-1. The yields increased due to growing nutrient supply and excellent plant protection. The highest yields were 3.67 t ha-1 in 2017 and 4.67 t ha-1 in 2018 (150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg K2O active substance). Purpose of the experiment at analysing the impact of different treatments on the profitability of sunflower production.

 

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Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization
Published November 20, 2011
159-162

The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

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The management and economical aspects of GPS based machine-control and tractor-implement sincronisation
Published March 20, 2013
161-167

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Precision farming has an array of technological equipment, elements and complete systems which are in themselves suitable to create conditions for efficient farming, to reduce environmental load and to provide farmers with optimal return on their investment.

On the leading edge of my research is to introduce the economic benefits of precision logistic optimization with satellite navigation in wheat and maize harvesting. My hypothesis, claiming that a well-organized system can increase the number of working days by 4 days per harvesting season in maize, and 2 days in wheat crop. If the farmer makes contract works for harvesting it means for him 2 or 4 days extra work by using the precision farming technologies with satellite communication system. Overall, as pertains to wheat and maize harvest seasons, yearly revenues can be increased by 7 760 000 HUF. I would like to introduce that the precision technologies increase combine costs by merely 5.4% which can be return in the first year of using.

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From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)
Published December 10, 2002
81-86

The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi...ng
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
Precision farming
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

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Open Method of Coordination in the European research policy
Published November 15, 2007
182-187

Research, development and innovation (R+D) are of great importance nowadays as regards the competetiveness and economic growth of any given country. In the European Union the Lisbon Strategy considers R+D as a crutial means to enhance european competetiveness. The EU is substansially lagging behind its main competitors (USA, Japan) in this doma...in, furthermore developing countries (China, India) have recently been making
great progress, thus posing additional challanges to our continent.  The EU needs to assess the present situation as soon as possible and meet the latest challenges in the most efficient way. In order to achieve this objective, the concept of the European Research Area (ERA) has been elaborated with the aim of reorganising, regrouping and integrating existing structures. The open method of coordination (OMC) is playing an important role in the implementation of this common area. It constitutes an alternative policy-making merthod to pure „intergovernmentalism” and the
„community method”. The OMC in the field of research policy is coordinated by the Scientific and Research Committe (CREST), which provides a forum for member states to share their experience and reach their common goals.

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The effects of joining The European Union in the area of tourism within health tourism in Hungary
Published September 2, 2009
169-177

The occasion of Hungary joining to the European Union caused difficult tasks and questions for tourism in Hungary. Tourism sector must have been prepared for joining to European  Union, which means developing a well-functioning and future planning strategy. It has to improve taking parts our tourism into international market without signif...icant deficit. The main aim is achieving the sustainable tourism by approach marketing and environmentally sound of way that is able to become competitive.
My aim is to analyze by numerous indexes what are the effects of joining Hungary to the European Union in tourism sector. However the results need to extend survey into many years. It is very important to reach long-term economic results and development, next to it has to be suitable impacts for social and natural environment, quality of life and developing health tourism as well.
To sum up we can establish extension of European Union area has improved diversity of tourism destination and goods, accessibility of natural and cultural features. 

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Effect of vitamin e and selenium supplementation on the antioxidant content of milk and dairy products in dairy cows
Published November 20, 2011
9-12

In 2007, the aim of the Ányos Jedlik program and the call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants - in this case: vitamin E and seleniu...m – used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an increased level of vitamin E and selenium content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E and selenium as feedadditives can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E and selenium in the milk and also in the diary products.

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The effects of education, culture, research and development in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published September 18, 2014
87-90

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The most important instrument of social advancement and economic development is the education system. The educational qualification of the population of Hajdú-Bihar county is continuously improving, however the census data of the year 2001 show that the educational qualification of the population of the county did not reach the national average. The educational qualification of the county’s population is higher at the county seat and in other cities and lower in small municipalities. The county’s ratio is strongly influenced by the data of the county seat Debrecen and that of Hajdúszoboszló sub region.

The unfavorable educational level of the region is related to the migration tendencies and the brain-draining trends of the past decades, as a consequence of which the population of the less developed eastern regions has moved either to the capital, or to the county seats, or larger cities of the region. The young are increasingly affected by the process.

The number of kindergartens in the county corresponds to the national average, therefore taking into consideration the regional demographic characteristics the aim should be the equalization of regional disproportions. The number of students per 1000 resident within the Northern Great Plain Region and in the county significantly exceeds the national average. The secondary school network of the county consists of 38 secondary grammar- and 51 secondary vocational schools.

The secondary schools of Debrecen have considerable impact on the county’s secondary education. The vocational training network of Hajdú-Bihar county is a large, in its conditions highly differentiated institutional network in which all types of secondary vocational institutions are present with secondary technical-, vocational-, accredited higher vocational-, specialized or preparatory vocational-, and special skill enhancement programmes. The majority of the secondary institutions have regional, rarely national enrollment.

Students who have the intention to continue their studies in higher education within the county can study in Debrecen or Hajdúböszörmény.

The integrated University of Debrecen has the highest student number within the country and it offers the widest range of academic programmes in Hungarian higher education. The University of Debrecen with the wide range of graduate and postgraduate educational programmes, unified academic qualification system, English language programmes is a European standard scientific centre of the Trans-Tisza Region. The county’s higher education takes exceeding share beyond its weight in the education of Natural Sciences (Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Mathematics), Health- and Social Sciences, Agricultural- and Environmental Sciences and Information Technology, which positively influences its educational structure. The county’s share in the education of Humanities (Hungarian Language, Foreign Languages, History, Archeology, Philosophy) is also significant.

6.3% of the country’s scientific researchers work in the county. In 2010 7.0% of the country’s R+D expenditure was spent here. 3/4 of the region’s research capacity is in Hajdú-Bihar county employed either by the University of Debrecen or by the research teams of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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The future of apple growing in the Northern Great Plain region
Published September 14, 2005
35-38

We revealed and assessed those macroeconomic data which enabled us to identify the outstanding role of agriculture and within it that of fruit production. Based on this, it can be said that soil is the most important natural resource of Hungary. The appropriate combination of the additional resources required for production, labour and assets c...an provide a comparative advantage for the Northern Great Plain Region.
The Northern Great Plain Region is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Hungary, so its development is a political objective. When analysing the economic sectors in the region, the important role of agriculture is obvious and it is also clear that the industry and the tertiary sector can only have an alternative income generating role in the future also. Therefore, it is important that the regional development funds of Hungary and the European Union are directly or indirectly aimed at improving agricultural development and competitiveness.

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Economic aspects of innovation in sheep breeding
Published November 24, 2008
33-36

Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
...The innovation activities performed by the enterprises, business organizations can be evaluated at firm (microeconomic) and national economy (macroeconomic) levels. In the case of sheep breeding also, a complex evaluation system should be applied, since this is a sector, which has significant rural development and social impacts. The innovation processes are analysed from the identification of the problem inducing research and development until the return of the invested resources.

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Usage of interactions among plants and pests in biogardens
Published November 10, 2010
126-129

Experiences has been gained in the last 25 years with plant extracts, fermented juices, infusions and brews of plant origin presented in present paper. Interactions among vegetables growing in mixed cultures have been also summarized with special regard to insect repellent plants and to those interaction when the target plant’s odour is cover...ed and the pest cannot find it. These methods – after the ecological balance of the garden has been returned – can help the growers to keep the pest density under the economic threshold. The allelopathy can be the basis of the presented results.

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Using research findings in precision maize production
Published November 13, 2012
227-231

The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers. 
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be  used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.

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The past and present of Érmellék wine region
Published May 6, 2013
49-52

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Érmellék is an area of the Partium. It is situated between Szilágy and Bihar counties and between River Kraszna and Berettyó. Its name is from Ér, the small brook, which crosses the area. Érmellék is famous for its wine production, because its climate is favourable for this kind of trade. Only a few information sheets of the small Partium-belonging micro-region, Érmellék are published nowadays. Érmellék has extremely picturesque architectural wine cellar rows, of which ”szalacsi” wine cellar row (wine cellar row system) with its unique structure consists of about a thousand cellars.

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Renewable energy on animal farms: support system and practical application
Published April 23, 2014
13-17

Renewable energy applications were examined in animal farms. The investment support system for animal farms – which has renewable elements – has been summarized through analyzing the legislation and future prospects. The most important in this topic is the Animal Farm Modernization Support, which had several application periods during the 2...007–2013 CAP budgets. For analyzing practical application of renewable energies interviews and farm visits have done in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect were examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. The investment supports plays great role in renewable energy projects by lowering the return time; and through additional points in application assessing, which is an incentive for farmers to include renewable energy element in their modernization projects.

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Global and national economic importance of pig meat production
Published August 29, 2017
13-20

The pork production has changed significant in recent decades. Pig production fell significantly due to the need to adapt to new animal welfare rules in the sector. Furthermore, change in the meat consumption habit had also a negative effect on pig meat production. Hungarian pig sector and meat industry are in a difficult situation. Due to the ...high feed prices, the average production cost of pig farming has often exceeded the  producer prices in recent years, therefore an increase of pig population could not be realised yet. Pig market is characterised by cyclical fluctuations of supply and prices, furthermore the decreasing producer price occurred parallel with increasing feed prices.
Technology is also a critical fact in the Hungarian pig sector because there is a huge gap in the level of technology compared to that of competitive member states. With the development of production methods the efficiency of pork meat production can be improved in an environmentally friendly way.

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Examination of the Effect of Transaction Costs in the Hungarian Beef Sector
Published May 4, 2004
212-223

technical and economic characteristics, which give rise to high levels of uncertainty and greater control in the supply chain. In order to investigate the role of different transaction costs in marketing behavior, we carried out research in the central region of Hungary among beef retailers and wholesalers. This research is based on primary dat...a collection and examines the motivation of choices in the beef sector on distinction among different marketing channels and the role of transaction costs in procurement. Since this case can be regarded as a qualitative choice situation the hypothesis that transaction cost’s variables are significant is judged by the application of multinomial logit model in order come up with the variables that can influence the supply chain structure and the choice of different marketing channels. This analysis enabled us to explore the structure in data and confirm or reject the expected interrelations of causative variables. Our
1 A szerző témavezetője Dr. Fertő Imre.
2 A kutatás az OTKA F038082 sz. „Vertikális koordinációs és integrációs modellek az élelmiszer-gazdaságban” c. programja keretében valósult meg.
3 A szerző köszöni Dr. Fertő Imrének és Dr. Szabó G. Gábornak, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Közgazdaságtudományi Kutatóközpont tudományos főmunkatársainak a kutatás során nyújtott nagy értékű segítséget. results partly support and contradict the basic predictions of transaction cost economics.

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Application of environmental accounting tools for agricultural companies
Published May 23, 2006
60-68

Today there is an ever stronger requirement for companies to consider the environmental aspects of their operation. The incorporation of these aspects into the economic practise of agricultural firms in our country is still in its infancy and, moreover, it usually follows from outside coercion (legal regulation) rather than voluntary behaviour....
Consequently, in the Hungarian agrar-economics – contrary to the example of Western Europe – the application of environmental accounting in agriculture is a barely researched subject; this has been so even though the environmental policy of companies can be made more conscious by adding an environmental dimension to the organizational information systems.
The aim of our investigation is two-fold. The first goal is to form a method that quantifies the environmental load of companies, is capable of comparing environmental performance of companies with different sizes, and takes into account the specific attributes of agriculture as well. The second is to apply this method in practice, to prove that estimating the environmental load of companies is possible by processing already available data (fiscal, accounting and statistical) using new concepts.
In this publication we present the joint application of three methods – each belonging to the toolset of environmental accounting – for two companies dealing with both crop and animal farming in the Pannonian region. The three methods are partly built upon each other and partly complementary. The company-level environmental balance is capable to show the relations between a given firm and its surrounding, but realistic comparison between environmental performance of different companies or periods is only possible by using specific index quantities.

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Contradiction in the agrofinancial regulation of agricultural producers
Published June 5, 2009
97-107

Hungary is a country of favourable conditions with agropotential, for this reason the regulations regarding agriculture is constantly the bone of legislative contention. The
purpose of this study is to present the actual agropotential contradictions concerning the agricultural producers, specifically focusing on certain problems without any ...detailed representation of the valid rules of law. The agrofinancial anomalies referring to agricultural producers can be found mostly in the system of the personal income tax (allowance, tax immunity), the value added tax (special agricultural legal position) as well as the social insurance.
The severity of the problem is supported by the agricultural producers’ behavioral types of paying taxes, globalisation process of these days and our place in the European Union. The resolution of the contradictions in agriculture does not lie by any means in the proper way of making the rules of the law of taxation, but in a comprehensive economic policy, which is to be waited for.

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Employment trends in the Northern Great Plain’s Region
Published July 18, 2012
109-111

Hungary can be divided into 7 regions, of which I am writing about the Northern Great Plain Region in this article. The Northern Great Plain consists of the counties Hajdú-Bihar, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. There are 389 settlements in the region, which can be considered rather few. The population of the region is nearl...y 1.5 million, which is nearly 15% of the total  population. This region is one of the most disadvantageous regions in Hungary, with its economic indicators ranking the lowest of all regions. Nevertheless, as regarding education and agriculture, the region is considered to be a prominent area.

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The significance of biological bases in maize production
Published March 20, 2013
61-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.

The weather of the trial year was quite droughty; the monthly average temperature was 3–4 oC higher than the average of 30 years. High temperature, together with lack of precipitation occurred during the most sensitive phenophases of maize (flowering; fecundation, grain saturation).

The following characteristics have been observed: starting vigour, date of male and female flowering, plant and cob height, dry-down dynamics during maturation and the change of yield composing elements has also been quantified. The yield was recalculated to 14% moisture content grain yield after harvesting.

The beginning of the growing period was advantageous, therefore the analysed hybrids could grow a high (above 300 cm) and strong stem. The yield of the hybrids changed between 10.33 and 11.87 t ha-1, but as a result of the unfavourable climatic extremes, their genetic yield potential prevailed only at a rate of 30–40%. However, moisture content by the time of harvesting was good despite its early date (12th September); it remained under below 14% in most cases. Dry-down was measured on a weekly basis between 14th August and 5th September.

The analysis of the qualitative parameters of the maize hybrids (protein %, oil % and starch %) resulted in significant differences. The most significant difference has been observed in the case of protein content (LSD5%=2.01). Oil content was the most advantageous in the case of hybrids belonging to the mid-late growing group (FAO 400). The X9N655 and 36V74 hybrids had the highest oil content (around 4%), while hybrids P9915 and 37F73 had significantly lower oil content. Starch content was above 70% in the case of every hybrid.

Hybrid selection is highly important in terms of yield and yield security of maize, as well as the application of modern biological fundamentals and hybrid specific technology for the improvement of the level of cultivation technology.

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Agricultural biogas plants in Eastern Hungary
Published February 17, 2015
79-81

In the scope of the article, agricultural biogas plants which operate within the region have been analysed together with their linked livestock plants. The study attempts to describe the current condition and future opportunities of the sites. It also covers the description of energy production/use efficiency. The study contains the list of fac...tors determining the economic operation of biogas plants. In the course of the analysis, types, amount and quality of energy produced of different raw materials have been determined within the decentralised energy production.

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Bioreactors in Hungary
Published December 6, 2005
248-254

The transformation and utilization of organic materials must occur with the highest degree of environmental conformity. This conformity – in accordance with the guiding principles of the European Union – will result in a new economic and systematical approach. We can establish the profitability of projects with the utilization of surplus ef...fects which characterize multiple-product lines.

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Distribution of family farms according to estate size and land usage in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published July 16, 2007
130-136

In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.

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Challenges and responses for the convergence of people living in deep poverty in Hungary
Published July 24, 2014
51-54

The accompanying phenomenon of the ongoing economic crisisis the deepening and fixation of awidely reaching social crisis. The concept o fdeep poverty has become generally known in recent years and has now become inevitable the convergence of the most disadvantaged at EU, governmental,regional and local levels. Besides government and othe rprog...rams a lot of research and studies serve reintegration. Among convergence tools education and training play prominent roles, which besides the acquisition o fpractical knowledge, place special emphasis on the development of a convergence helping environment and culture, the creation of a "convergenceculture".

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