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Overview of higher education funding models
Published February 25, 2014
129-133

t can be defined in the course of the review of the financing characteristics of higher education that every model has its advantageous feature which is missing from the others, at the same time; it has its weaknesses as well. None of the basic models can meet the complex requirements of the nowadays society and government, thus the choice betw...een the models have to be based on the preferences of decisionmakers and society. In most countries the combination of models are implemented, which compensate the weaknesses of the basic models, however, the models formed by the combination of different principles are neither perfect.

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Evaluation of the current situation of the Hungarian higher education based on a few indexes
Published July 18, 2012
121-125

Around the Millennium we experienced the worldwide development and the growing importance of the role of higher education played in the social and economic development. A few years later, however, a crisis appeared in the situation of higher education (Kadocsa, 2002). The Hungarian higher education system faces the perspective of serious change...s in its fundamental principals – such as its main activities and the economical ways which are used to finance these activities – even if only parts of the new educational scheme come into effect. Considering this fundamental activity aspect of the issue, there are new challenges which make necessary to rethink the role and aim of higher education and to define the new tasks needed in connection with education, research and other services. Hungarian Education needs to be renewed and improved to avoid a complete
break away; therefore, future priorities and tasks in order to fulfill these priorities need to be defined (Vincze and Harsányi, 2011). The new conception seems to be based on restrictions of the budget as it is experienced recently: a new structure available for a smaller part of society with a restricted budget has been under development. However, not even a battle, let alone a war can be won without money, horses and arms. The recent financial restrictions as well as the parts of the Széll Kálmán plan concerning education prove that serious amounts of governmental funds is taken away from education. The international improvement tendencies contradict to basically all of these Hungarian priorities.
All in all, no reform or change – no matter how much wanted – can be achieved without appropriate funds.

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Effect of Soil Covering on the Soil Enzyme Activity of Integrated Orchard
Published September 22, 2004
20-29

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matters (agrofoil and black polyethylene) on the activity of some enzymes (phosphatase, saccharase, urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) occuring in soil. Soil samples were taken from a cider apple plantation of the Fruit Producing Research and Advisory Kht Újfehért.... The enzyme activity was measured according to Krámer and Erdei (1959a), Kuprevič and Tsherbakova (1956), Kuprevič et al. (1966), Frankenberger and Johanson (1983), Mersi and Schinner (1991). Soil moisture content was by conventional (drying chamber) method measured during every sampling and enzyme activity was transpolated to absolute dry soil. Results were estimated by mathematical methods (variation analysis, correlation counting). Soil samples were taken by trials 5 times (in every two months) a year in the vegetation period from March to November.
By recording the monthly changes of the enzyme activity we have observed the following. The activity of the phosphatase was generally the highest in May and the lowest in November. Depending on the trials, high values were also measured in March and September. The activity of the saccharase was generally the highest in November and the lowest in June, but at the same time peaks even occured in May and September. The highest urease avtivity was measured in September and November, and the lowest activity in May and July, also depending on the trials. In the year 2000, after a deep point in March, the activity of the catalase was the highest in November or by certain trials in September. In 2001, the lowest activity was also measured in March, but the highest activity appeared in November in case of one-minute trial, and in May in consequence of two-minute trial. Finally the activity of dehydrogenase was the highest in November and the lowest in July apart from the model years.
There were essential differences in rainfall of the two experimental years which was reflected in the enzyme activities. There was a poor positive significant relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values in case of phosphatase, saccharase, urease (r=0,426; 0,480; 0,396) respectively. In case of catalase1 (r=0,518), catalase (r=0,556), dehydrogenase (r=0,559) we obtained a medium strong positive relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values. By evaluating the effect of different trials in case of every examined enzyme significantly higher values were detected in soils covered by agrofoil (a porous black polyethylene) than in soils covered by black polyethylene or in uncovered soils. Moreover, the soil covered by black polyethylene showed significantly higher enzyme activities (besides phosphatase) than the control soil. Thus soil-covering meant statistically significant advantages in enzyme activity as opposed to uncovered soil proved.

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