Anthracnose is considered one of the most destructive diseases for sour cherry production due to the rapid development of the disease on fruits. Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk (anam.: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz.) has been the fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose in last deca...des. Yield losses greater than 90% may occur under epidemic conditions. C. acutatum (J.H. Simmonds, 1968) strains were isolated of sourcherry plantations in East Hungary and this pathogen, new for Hungarian microbiont became recently dominant. Contrarily to the former species it is certainly transmitted with ants during fruit ripening. About third of strains proved to be cutinase producers that enable them to actively penetrate via cuticule, and these strains infect directly berries of blackberry, grape and tomato as well as plum and apple. Most of cutinase negative strains could also infect these fruits after mechanic injury. All strains of both species produce amylase, cellulase, lecithinase, lipase, polyfenoloxydase and protease in vitro, although the activity of these enzymes highly varied in the medium. The only C. acutatum strains produced noticeable amount of chitinase. Strains, tolerant to recently applied fungicides to control the anthracnose, could be isolated of sour cherry plantations that might be the cause of ineffectiveness of control measures in 2010. The mycofungicide containing mixture of three Trichoderma species in oil carrier could efficiently depress the development of anthracnose in ripening sour cherry.
Facing an unprecedented crisis, both Greece and the international actors have been struggling to facilitate a solution that assures sustainable growth through restructuring the economy and the national accounts. However, enduring solutions cannot be born but through a very thorough understanding of the root causes and the nature of the problem.... A country far from fully exhausting her resources is also experiencing increasing tension in the society. Highlighting some key characteristics of the most relevant parties, the factors undermining the society and the real growth potential of the country will be addressed and challenged with key economic principles. This cross-sectional study aims to pave way to a more comprehensive approach to prevent any disagreements or delays that was experienced in late 2013. The findings refer to the assets of the country and identify some basic requirements to boosting the Greek economy. The lessons learned and the growth potential of the country is being discussed in the concluding remarks, pointing to some factors to be considered in the future.