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The special questions of nutrition of forest plants
Published December 15, 2010
83-88

Some physiological effects of bacteria containing fertilizer and some wood ash were examined in the experiments. The minimization of the use of chemicals in agriculture has been an ongoing challenge. One option lies in the intenzification of soil life. The release of organic matters by the roots and bacteria play a significant role in the uptak...e of minerals. The main problem to usilize wood ash in agriculture is its heavy metal contents. The
solubility of heavy metals is very low, therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture according to our experiments. The wood ash and biofertilizer contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants.

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Effects of a traditional agricultural sector’s decline in less favoured areas
Published November 13, 2012
109-114

Due to the effects of economic and political transformations, privatization and accession to the EU, Hungarian agriculture has gone through significant changes in the last two decades. As a result of continuous changes in the economic and regulatory environment, producers have to plan and maintain cultivation and adapt to the changing market ne...eds within continuously changing circumstances. These effects have resulted in a significant decline or in some cases, certain sectors have disappeared. These exercise a negative social and economic effect on all over the country, causing irreversible damages on those regions where agriculture is the only source of living. This paper discusses the effects of breakdown or disappearance of a traditional agricultural sector, namely the tobacco sector.

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Genetic polymorphism of candidate genes in pig meat production
Published November 20, 2011
37-40

H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes were suggested as candidate genes for fat content in pig meat. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes by PCR-RFLP method in a group of pigs. Genotyping of pigs was done by PCRRFLP methods. We identified three genotypes in the set of pigs, HH (0.504), Hh (0.412...) and hh (0.084) for H-FABP (HinfI). Allele H showed higher frequency than allele h (0.710 vs. 0.290). Three genotypes were identified for the H-FABP (HaeIII) gene (DD - 0.194, Dd - 0.494, dd - 0.312). The allele D (0.441) showed slightly lower frequency than allele d (0.559). All three genotypes were identified for LEPR (HpaII) in the group of pigs (AA – 0.137, AB - 0.314, BB – 0.549). Higher frequency of LEPR gene was confirmed for allele B (0.706), as compared with allele A (0.294). We identified two genotypes for MC5R (BsaHI) in the group of pigs (AA - 0.348 and AG - 0.652), genotype GG was not found. As conforms with genotype structure, we recognize a higher frequency of allele A (0.674) as compared with allele G (0.326). 

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The effect of plant density on the yield of sweet potato
Published May 23, 2019
125-128

A field study was conducted in South-East Hungary during the main cropping season of 2016, 2017 and 2018, with the objective of determining the effect of plant spacing on the productivity of sweet potato. Production technology experiments of four repetitions were set up in a randomized block design on sandy soil. The performed treatments consis...ted of four variations of plant spacing (row distance x plant-to-plant distance): 80 cm x 20 cm, 80 cm x 30 cm, 100 cm x 20 cm, 100 cm x 30 cm. The plant material was the Hungarian registered sweet potato variety ‘Ásotthalmi-12’. Analysis of variance revealed that planting density significantly affected the average yield of storage roots. The highest yield per plant was achieved with the 100 cm x 30 cm (2016, 2017), as well as with the 80 cm x 30 cm (2018) setups. On hectare level, our results showed that the highest plant density of 62,500 plants ha-1 (80 cm x 20 cm setup) could give the highest yield. Comparing the highest tons ha-1 results to those achieved with the plant spacing setups resulting in the highest yield per plant, the differences can be even 13 or 14 tons at hectare level. This finding underlines the importance of choosing the proper planting density towards the higher end.

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Validation of the competence profile of agri-environmental engineering bachelor course
Published December 22, 2010
63-71

As member of the European Union, the development if the Hungarian agriculture is determined by the Common Agricultural Policy. After the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003, the environmental protection has got a crucial function. The constant changing role of agriculture has reacted students in higher education. For firms connecte...d to agriculture, human resource management based on competency has an important role in custody of competitiveness. One of the most important goals of firms is to supply the demands of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is required. The quality of human resource is determined not only by its qualification, language skills, professional experience, and practise, but extant competencies that can also be developed. To choose the expectant employee, it is not enough for them to have intelligence and proficiency; it is also decisive to examine their particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s
achievement that will definitely contribute to the success of the enterprise. Basically, closer cooperation is needed between higher education institutions and employers to achieve this goal. At the same time, the higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering the actual requirements of labour market, and accordingly, they can form syllabus in a way to train auspicious experts. In this article examination of the requirements of labour market for graduates from agri-environmental engineering bachelor course is presented.

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Effectivity indicators in the German agriculture from the 1990s till today
Published May 23, 2006
15-23

Almost fifteen years have passed since the reunification of Germany. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was still unclear how the agricultural sector in the former East Germany would be able to survive, as it was still characterized by large scale farms, organized for a socialist economy. The course of this essay will look at how the agricultura...l productivity has changed the two different productivity systems in the western and eastern part of Germany.
Productivity can be defined as output produced per unit of input. If we define productivity indicator as output per one type of inputs then we get so-called partial productivity index, however, if we define productivity indicator as output produced per unit of more than one inputs we get multi-factor productivity.
In agriculture, the most often used partials productivity indexes are: labour, capital, land productivity and intermediate consumption productivity.
The analysis of total factor productivity requires the aggregation of all inputs by using input prices.

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Distribution of family farms according to estate size and land usage in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published July 16, 2007
130-136

In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.

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The role of networks and clusters in rural development
Published December 22, 2010
57-62

The development of rural areas is a key role for the European Union and its member states as well. The rural development primarily achieved through the development of agriculture, because the main beneficiaries of the grant are the farmers. Hungary today is close to 1 million units in agriculture, but only 10% are competitive. Agriculture as an... industry according to its economic characteristics needs closely managed decentralization, where the autonomy of the units remain, but there is a central governing body, which constitutes a proffesional manager function. This is a superorganization, which stay above agricultural units, called cluster.

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The effects of different planting methods on sweet potato
Published December 28, 2018
173-177

The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.

Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.

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Impact of lameness on the milk production of ewes
Published March 23, 2016
5-7

The aim of this study was assessing the impact of lameness on the milk production, somatic cells count and component of milk. We assess also impact of lameness on the order of entry into the milking parlour.

The experiment was carried at the farm, located in northern Slovakia. The farm keeps sheep Improved Valachian. Samples of milk wer...e taken during two periods: May, July. It was taken 428 samples together. We recorded three groups by lameness- strong lame, slightly lame, non-lame ewes. We recorded also the order of entry of ewes into the milking parlour in milking row. The results were mathematically processed using the Microsoft Excel program and statistically evaluated by SAS.

We found significant statistical differences between months (P<0.0001) in all the above mentioned indicators. In July we recorded 26 ewes with slightly lameness and 18 ewes with strong lameness. Other ewes were non-lame. Non-lame sheep had in July the highest milk yield (356±148 ml) and the lowest decrease in milk yield from May to July (-206±131 ml) compared with slightly (317±116 ml, -223±163) and strong (319±122 ml, -219±151 ml) lame ewes. However, these differences were not statistically significant. We have not identified statistically significant differences between groups in somatic cells count (logxSCC for non-lame: 4.83±0.608 in ml, slightly lame: 4.76±0.653 in ml, strong lame 4.71±0.787 in ml). Milk composition (fat, proteins, lactose) nor changes in the composition of milk that occurred between May and July were not affected by lameness of ewes. But lameness in July affected the change the order of entry of ewes in the milking parlour in July compared with the order of entry recorded in May.

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Accuracy of Location Identification by GPS and Possibilities for its Application in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
157-160

A description of the design and operating principle of the GPS system and the explanation of key terms of telemetric and chronometric measurements is followed by several examples characteristic of the results of factors which may influence accuracy of the identification of geographic location by satellites. In addition, results of accuracy test...ing of absolute GPS measurements and improvements of accuracy experienced and attributable to the alteration of the periods used for establishing average values are highlighted. Furthermore, we examined certain practical possibilities for the use of GPS systems in agriculture, emphasizing the advantages hidden in the use of GIS-GPS integration, crop mapping, soil maps and gross produce maps, in the application of the VRT (Variable Rate Technology) and in combinations of the same.

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The role of agriculture in regional development
Published July 24, 2014
25-30

Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of ...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.

Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.

The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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ZigBee technology in precision agriculture
Published July 18, 2012
15-17

ZigBee technology aims to completely satisfy the requirements set by precision agriculture, since this system makes it possible to collect data in an accurate and regular way. The cost of one module is rather favourable; therefore, damaged parts can be replaced quickly. Due to the modular structure, the system can be further developed easily. N...ew units can be quickly incorporated into the network without any difficulty.

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Heterobeltiosis and combining ability among Egyptian cotton genotypes under well irrigated and water deficit conditions
Published December 1, 2020
5-18

Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated a...nd deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.

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Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
Published November 13, 2012
237-240

Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Reflections on the use of subsidies received from the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the micro-region Ibrány-Nagyhalász
Published December 16, 2012
211-216

Hungary’s accession to the European Union caused major changes in the country’s life. Rural development subsidies can be received through extensive application mechanisms. This is particularly challenging for lagging micro-regions. My study presents the lagging microregion of Ibrány-Nagyhalász, focusing on what types of organizations and ...upon what grounds received subsidies in the framework of the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme 2004–2006 (AVOP). I focus on the same parameters when examining the measures in the third axis of the New Hungary Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 (ÚMVP), followed by a comparison between the two programmes’ effectiveness. I conclude that due to the experience collected throughout the period of AVOP, both the number and the quality of applications have risen from the year 2007. Still, due to the lack of competence, cooperation and motivation, the region's planned improvements are not yet fully met and the capabilities of the region are not yet fully exploited. For the future, even more complex and more feasible projects are needed.

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Effect of G2548A polymorphism in the leptin gene on the BMI level in human population
Published February 18, 2016
5-10

The polymorphism in leptin (LEP 2548A) seems to influence obesity among others genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the G2548A polymorphism on body mass index. We included 79 people from Slovakia with some genetic relatedness and used barrels kit to isolate the genomic DNA from an adenoblast swab- from the salivary. PCR ...products were amplified by pursued polymorphisms and G2548A, we restriction-analyzed them and then we identified the specific fragments describing the presence of chosen SNP polymorphism by the agarose electrophoresis, to analyze SNP polymorphism by PCR-RFLP method.

The LEP gene had increased frequency of G allele (0.5506). The most common genotype occurring in the gene LEP was heterozygous genotype (AG) and the least frequent genotype in LEP was AA (0.1899). Taking the age into account the BMI is higher if the G allele occurs in the LEP gene. Moreover, if the G allele genotype was situated in dominant form, then the highest average BMI was present.

According to the results we can assume that the AA genotype (LEP) has a protective effect on the prevalence of obesity compared to the other genotypes.

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Current Conditions and Opportunities of Biofarming in Hungary
Published May 4, 2004
150-156

The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with natu...re to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.

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Phytopathological aspects of precision agriculture
Published November 13, 2012
135-139

This paper illustrates the efforts based on the results obtained in the funding of precision agriculture, during more than two decades of cooperation between University of Debrecen and University of Oradea, within the framework of joint, EU co-financed projects, and put into practice on both sides of the border. Common plant-health databases, i...nteractive Web pages, consultation activities, professional publications, professional training activities, laboratory infrastructure improvements, common research themes proves the progress made to date and create conditions for further development of joint research activities.

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Challenges and agroecological approaches in crop production
Published September 5, 2018
75-89

Never has the need been greater for an ecosystem approach to agriculture. As our global population exceeds 9 billion in the next 30 years, with a concomitant demand for agricultural products, ever more pressure will be placed on our agricultural systems. Meanwhile, climate change is altering the ecological settings in which agriculture is pract...iced, demanding adaptation. Knowledge generated by long-term research will help to address one of the grand challenges of our time: how to meet sustainably the growing world demand for agricultural products – in a way that minimizes environmental harm and enhances the delivery of a diverse array of ecosystem services.

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The Effect of EU Accession on the Hungarian Tobacco Sector. The Evaluation of the Regulations
Published December 6, 2005
368-377

Tobacco growing can be regarded as a special small sector of Hungarian agriculture. However, studying it from a different point of view, we can see that it is an outstanding sector among others in agriculture. Not only is its budget importance that makes it significant (its total budgetary income is more than 200 billion HUF), and on the other ...hand it also plays an important role in employment and income output.
Nevertheless questions of regulation arise, and especially those of its justification, methods and scope. Moreover, EU accession forces Hungary to redraw its regulatory statutes for legal harmonization. Below is a discussion of the impacts of this process, as well as of the domestic tobacco market itself.

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The influence of fertilization and tillage method on the formation root system capacity and grain production of spring barley
Published November 20, 2011
89-93

To evaluate the interaction of year x variety, year x tillage method and year x fertilization on the grain yield and root system capacity (RSC) of spring barley, we ran polyfactorial field trials in agroecological conditions of a warm corn production area in Slovakia, at  Malanta, in 2009 and 2010. The RSC measurements were done using LCR ...- meter at a frequency of 1 kHz and they took place in four growth stages: at leaf development in the stage of four leaves (RSC1), in full tillering (RSC2), in the stage heading (RSC 3) and at the stage of ripening (RSC4). The values of grain yield, RSC1, RSC2, RSC3, RSC4 reached in 2009 comparison to 2010 were significantly lower. The highest yield in 2009 was reached by variety Marthe (4.49 t.ha-1) and by variety Bojos (7.19 t ha-1) in 2010. The highest values of RSC in observed growth stages were achieved by variety Bojos in 2009, and in 2010 also besides RSC1. Within both years, difference in yields between tillage methods was not observed. The values of RSC in growth stage of 4 leaves and tillering was higher at conventional tillage, butthe values of RSC3 and RSC4 were higher with minimized tillage. The highest grain yield and values of RSC in every growth stage were achieved on the fertilization variant “c“ in 2009 and on the fertilization variant “b“ in 2010. The correlation relationships between grain yield and RSC were significant and positive in every growth stage. The strongest relationship was found among grain yield and RSC (r=0.6047).

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