No 9 (2002)

Published December 10, 2002



Fight Against Hunger: A Worldwide Challenge at the Onset of the Third Millenary

We live in such an era and face such a century, in which the growth of the- world population, the problems deriving from the population explosion will create an unprecedented and never recurring situation for Hungary and the Hungarian animal husbandry as regards the tasks and possibilities ahead us. While presently 6 billion people live on Eart...h, in the first century of the third millenary the population can reach 10-12 billion and is expected to stagnate around that number.
The Third World, the so-called developing countries struggling with enormous difficulties, makes up for 90% of the annual population growth of 80-90 million people, while the population of the developed countries is stagnant or decreasing. In this aspect, Hungary' s situation is extremely worrisome, because our population has been decreasing for two decades, and according to recent demographic forecasts could drop to 8 million in the next century if the present trend continues. This should be impeded, among others with the contribution of animal husbandry.
The author evaluates the genetical possibilities with the help of which stockbreeders can meet the requirements of the future

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Some Aspects of Globalization and Sustainable Development from a European Point of View with Special Regards to the Future of the Hungarian Animal Husbandry

No abstract

Preservation of Biological Diversity of Domestic Animals in Hungary

Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UNO Congress domestic animals belong also officially to the genetic diversity of the world. Non commercial domestic animal breeds should be maintained for many cultural and technical reasons. Conservation and preservation of living beings is nowadays in the programme of many regional, national and international org...anizations.
The preservation of domestic animals is possible in situ (at the original place and conditions) and ex situ (by cryogenic methods).
There are three era in the history of preservation of domestic animals: the epoch of spontaneous maintenance, the period of sporadic national activities and the era of international programme.
Some of the questions to be solved by scientific research: the principles of selection of the candidate populations for maintenance, the different degrees of endangeredness, the necessary population size to be subsidized, the problem of inbreeding, the best mating systems etc.
In Hungary the maintenance of endangered domestic animal breeds is based upon the low.
The following breeds are on the list of protected breeds:
− the Hungarian Grey cattle,
− the Lipizzan, Shagya, Nonius, Gidran, Furioso,Kisbér Halfbred, Murinsulaner and Hucul horses,
− the Racka, Tsigai and Cikta sheep,
− the Mangalitsa pig,
− the Hungarian yellow, white, speckled and the Transsylvanian naked necked hen,
− the Bronze Turkey,
− the Frizzle Feathered goose.
Hopefully in the near future the breeders of traditional domestic animal breeds will find the possible niches for their special products.

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Phosphorus (from Different Phosphorus Sources) Utilisation in Piglets, and the Effect of the Addition of Phytase into the Feedstuff

The experiments were carried out in a 2x2 factorial treatments with three replicates, and were completed with 32P phosphorus metabolism measurement. Hungarian Large White x Dutch Landrace growing pigs with 15–18 kg starting live weight were involved in the experiment.
The experimental scheme was the following:
Diet consisted of maize and extracted soybean meal. Both components have high phytase content and low phytase activity. 1/a animals received their P-supply according to their needs and 1/b animals got 10% less than their actual P-need in the first part of the experiment.
In the second part of the experiment both groups (2/a, 2/b) received identical P-supply and 500FTU/kg P supplementation. Apart from P- and phytase-supplementation, the piglets’ diet was identical.
Total P digestibility was 52% without phytase supplementation, which increases by 4% when P was added according to need and by 12% increase of decreased P-supply. Digestibility of nutrients somewhat increased as effect of phytase supplementation. According to the results of 32P experiments, inorganic P digestibility of MCP was 82–90.8%, which decreases to 73.4–87.2% in case of phytase supplementation.
Parallel with tendency, native P digestibility of the diet was 31.5–32.2%, which increased to 42.5–54.5% in the case of phytase supplementation.
Results support the that inorganic P input can be decreased by phytase supplementation and as a consequence P output, the concept and environmental pollution can at the some time be decreased.

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Analysis of the Station Test Results of the Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace Populations Applying Survival Analysis

Authors analysed the days of fattening in relation to the station test for Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig populations using, survival analysis. Survival and hazard functions were calculated in both groups separately for castrates and females. The log-rank test was applied to determine the significance of the differences across... the groups. Authors established that within the breeds the functions of the castrates and females were significantly different, namely the castrates reached final weight sooner or, in cases where final weight was not reached by a certain period, castrates reached this weight during the next time unit with a higher probability than the females.

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A Few Thoughts About the Implementation of Sustainability in Hungary

UN Conference on Environment and Development óta (1992 Rio de Janeiro) a sustainable development fogalma bevonult a nemzetközi szervezetek és a nemzeti kormányok programjaiba. A fenntartható fejlődés megvalósítására sok országban stratégiákat dolgoztak ki. Magyarországon ilyen stratégiai a dokumentum ma még nincs, de valószín...ű, hogy rövidesen elkészül. A szerző ehhez az előkészítő folyamathoz kíván hozzájárulni javaslataival. A fenntarthatóság (sustainability) megvalósításához hosszú időre és konkrét cselekvési programok összefüggő láncolatára van szükség. A szerző javaslatai szerint a következő 3-5 évben tíz prioritást célszerű támogatni a kormány és a civil társadalom részéről:
1. Környezetvédelem
2. Környezeti nevelés és tudatformálás
3. A szemét, a hulladék eltávolítása és hasznosítása
4. Környezet-egészségügy
5. Környezetbiztonság
6. A közlekedés korszerűsítése
7. Agrár-környezetvédelem
8. Környezetbarát technológiák és termékek
9. Lakossági részvétel a döntés-előkészítésben és döntéshozatalban
10. Az állami és önkormányzati költségvetések szerepe

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The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in the Plant-Pathogen Relationship

No abstract

Nitrogen Content of Hungarian Soils and Nitrogen Fertilization

For crop production and agricultural production, the most important natural resource is the soil that can optionally renew. Paralelly with this, soil plays a major role in the geological and biological cycle of elements. As a result of the big (geological) and small (biological) element cycles, the elements and combines neccessary for organisms... can accumulate in the soil creating suitable living conditions for plants and other organisms. Soil is a heterogenous system both horizontally and vertically, and soil constituents show great variety in all the three dimensions, in addition, most of the parameters can also change between two examination dates. When talking about the factors influencing plant production, one should take into account this variation and heterogenity in time and space. When making fertilization recommendations, these factors should all be considered. In any consultation system, most of the mistakes and errors made are due to the unsatisfying soil testing and the negligence of soil heterogenity. In the practice of fertilization the biggest mistake is the improper soil sampling, then comes the methodical mistake of soil testing, which is followed by the inaccuracy of instrumental analysis and the subjectivity of result evaluation, but the latter two are negligible compared to the others. Under normal, i.e. production conditions, the quantity and distribution of nutrients in the soil are greatly dependent upon the applied technology, the amount and form of the applied natural and artificial fertilizers and the quality of fertilization.
Fertilization recommendations are needed because in the layer which is accessible for plant roots only a part of the nutrient content is available for plants in a specific production cycle. An illustration of this is that though the upper 1 m layer of an average chernozem soil contains more than 5000 kg N, 12000 kg K2O and 1500 kg P2O5 (form of expression mostly used in Hungary), the application of fertilizer doses which are just fractions of these quantities is essential. This is due to the fact that the available amount of the total nutrient content depends from the quality of soil, the environmental factors (the physical and chemical qualities of the soil) and the specific nutrient’s qualities (solubility, adsorption). Knowledge of these processes and the examination of the factors influencing the actual nutrient content are vital for working out a fertilization practice, which does not put more strain on the environment than neccessary.

All of the above mentioned should be considered when applying inputs in the fields. In a well-functioning practice that considers the economic and environmental conditions (unfortunately the present production and economic conditions do not enable an appropriate level and degree), three nutrients are supplemented generally (and were supplemented in the last decades): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Studying the nutrient balance of the Hungarian field production’s last hundred years, we can draw some interesting conclusions.
The nutrient balance became positive for nitrogen and potassium in the second half of the 1960’s, while for phosphorus it was positive from the first half of the 1960’s and this period lasted until the end of the 1980’s.
Neither before the 1960’s, nor since the 1990’s has the amount of nutrients supplemented in a specific year reached the amount of the nutrient uptake of the same year.

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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Integration of Transformation Technology and Conventional Plant Breeding of Cereal Plants

The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.

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From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)

The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
Precision farming
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

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Beginning of a New Era in Hungarian Crop Production

The examination of Triticum monococcum, which was observed on an ancient region, and its ancient quality made me develop a new quality analysis system.
The Triticum Monococcum frames the new standard of this ancient quality.
The quality of diploidea – tetraploidea – hexaploidea series, which was arisen by the wheat poliploidization, g...radually decreased. The quality of diploidea species diffuse around the standard.
The micronutrient content of tetraploid species gradually decrease, the hexaploid species and the Triticum Aestuvum micronutrient content 20-70% less than the ancient quality’s.

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Utilization of Climatic Natural Resources in Domestic Crop Production

1. Több évtizedes kutatómunka során megállapítást nyert, hogy a hazai szántóföldi növénytermesztés bár jelentős fejlődést mutatott, amely a termések növekedésében nyilvánult meg, azonban a termésingadozások nagyságát és viszonylagos értékét elsősorban a klimatikus tényezők okozzák.
2. A szántóföldi növé...nytermesztés egy olyan agroökológiai rendszer, amely óriási mennyiségű energiát használ fel és egyidejűleg átalakít, és biológiai energiát szolgáltat. A modern magyar szántóföldi növénytermesztés keretében a főbb termesztett növények energia-hasznosítása, illetve efficienciája eléri a főtermékre vonatkoztatott energiamennyiség 10-11%-át. Ez utóbbi érték jelentősen meghaladja az általánosan ismertetett 1,5-2,5% értéket.
3. A produkció növekedése a szén beépülése jelentős arányú. Főbb szántóföldi növényeink (búza, kukorica) évjáratonként 20 t/ha bruttó produkció esetén közel 30 t szén-dioxid mennyiséget hasznosít, amelyet legnagyobb hányadában a légkörből von el.
4. A növényi produkció növekedésével a vízhasznosulás egyre kedvezőtlenebbé válik. Míg a múlt század elején 5-6 kg képződését engedte meg 1 mm-nyi csapadékmennyiség, jelenleg a vízhasznosulási tényező 15-30 kg/mm közötti, de szélső esetekben elérheti a 40 kg/mm értéket is. Ez azt jelenti, hogy 100 év alatt a vízhasznosulási tényező a produkció megtízszereződését fejezi ki.
5. A talajok vízháztartási tulajdonságai a vízhasznosulási értéket jelentős módon befolyásolják: a talajok vízforgalmi tulajdonságainak romlásával az egységnyi vízmennyiségből előállítható növényi szárazanyag-termék mennyisége csökken.

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Experiments for Isolating and Culturing Soil-borne Mycobacteria (Contemporary Publication)

On grounds of the several thousand tests performed in the field of this topic, the following conclusions may be arrived at:
1. The informations available and the experimental data on soil mycobacteria are very incomplete.
2. Of the 77 strains isolated from similar soil types so far, and adaptable for pure basic culture, 47 strains are con...fusingly similar, from morphological aspects, to the mycobacteria isolated from clinical material.
3. The apparently homogeneous cultures isolated from the soil are generally co-infected and, therefore, the morphological, biochemical, and other physiological characteristics of the isolated strains can be studied only on base cultures after purification.
4. For the isolation of the soil mycobacteria experiments qualified hitherto as most suitable processes the 4 or 1 per cent NaOH neutralized with H2SO4, and the 1 per cent NaOH or 1 per cent Na3PO4 treatments, on Gottsacker agar medium with plate or top pouring, at a temperature of 29 to 37 C°, in a soil suspension sequence of 1:500 to 1:5000 final dilution.
5. The Ziehl-Nielsen staining of the isolated mycobacteria composed to sub-cultures is best performed by heating with an infra red radiator from above, instead of the gas flame used so far to heat from below.
The repetition of the biochemical test of the hitherto isolated 77 purified strains is under progress, and will be reported on in our next scientific publication.

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Genetic and Practical Classifications of Hungarian Saline Soils (Contemporary Publication)

The first part of the paper treates possible ways of soil alkalisation and the differences due to the reaction of the medium, neutral or alkaline, respectively. Alkalisation may occur in any soil, independently of the type, or even in soil-like formations, if conditions are favorable. Alkali soils are so-called hydrogenetic formations, develope...d in part through water effects. Under conditions prevailing in Hungary two kinds of salt migration processes, opposite to one another, are observable, i.e.:
1. Leaching downward, causing decrease in the base content of the upper layers,
2. Capillary rise of salts, causing increases in base content of the upper layers.
Accumulation of soluble salts usually takes place in the transition zone where these two processes get into contact with each other (Fig. 1).
* A közlemény első ízben a Bukaresti Nemzetközi Talajtani Konferencián (1958. IX. 26-án) német nyelven: „Die genetische Klassifizierung der ungarischen Szikböden” címen hangzott el.
As precipitation amounts in the Hungarian lowlands from 500 to 550 mm and causes leaching, true saline soils do not occur, except on some spots.
Between the two extreme types – completely leached, and salinized where leaching is completely absent, respectively – there exists a long range of soils alkalised or salinized to various degrees. Thus the various types of alkali soils display an interdependence with one another as shown in Fig. 2.
This interrelations may perform a base for the genetical classification of alkali soils of various properties and peculiarities. Summarising the facts stated above the paper offers a roughly, elaborated scheme for the classification of Hungarian alkali and saline soils, shown in a comprehensive table, the particulars of which are dicussed in the text. Thus the foundation is laid down for a detailed classification of alkali soils that later may become incorporated into an internationally approved system of alkali soils. The so-called practical classes of alkali soils – determined according to methods of reclamation – may be inserted into the delineated genetical system.

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Possibilities for Growing Fennel in Hungary

Fennel appers to be cupable of enlarging our vegetable sortiments in Hungary. Ecological conditions favour production. For cultivation, 12,5 plants/m2 are recommended. Fennel requires 250-300 mm water over a 110 day growing period. No considerable pests have been found yet. 1-3 kg/m2 tubers can be harvested. Marketable tubers weigh 200-300 g. S...maller tubers can be dried, pickled or deep frozen.

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Utilization of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.)

Okra is warm season crop native to Africa. Presently it is widely grown in the northeastern parts of Brazilia, both northen, and western parts of Africa, southeast Asia, and in the eastern parts of the Mediterraneum. In Hungary it is a rarity. It’s adaptation to Hungary began about 40 years ago.The optimal sowing time under Hungarian climatic... conditions is middle of May. The harvests is started – depending on the weather – first, by the middle of July, and picking continues until the first of September.
According to our results, seed soaking, sowing under a perforated foil sheet-covered trench (2 weeks earlier the normal sowing time), and 55-65 g thousand weight seeds are favourable.
The harvest period under Hungarian circumstances is appr. one and half months.

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Possibilities of Growing Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) in Hungary

The domestication of choice broadening, special vegetable species offers new market possibilities in Hungary. The production of artichokes has good perspectives due to its high protein, vitamin and mineral contents and its wide usability. According to the literature, in Hungary it is worth examining the annual production technology, which has to be researched in our country. The basic aim of our work was to establish the annual production of artichoke in Hungary with scientific research.
In the experiment, 5 Italian sorts (Valetta di Roma, Gobbo di Nizza, Violetto di Romagna, Violetto S. Francesino and Precoce di Romagna), 1 American sort (Green Globe) and 1 Egyptian sort (Balady) were used. For one half of the plants, we tried to bring on bud-production appearing in the first year only with early planting, while we used also a gibberellic acid hormone treatment for the other half.
Only the sort Green Globe had yields in appropriate quantity (21.4 t/ha) and quality. The low yield and inequable quality of buds of the Italian and Egyptian sorts refers to the fact that these sorts are not applicable for annual production in Hungary. Although the gibberellic acid treatment resulted an earlier harvest, increased the equality of buds and increased the proportion of stems producing buds except for the sort Green Globe, overall it did not have a positive effect. The hormone treatment fastened the physiological processes of the plants, thereby it induced early insenescence and lignifying of the buds. The high temperatures during the bud-formation period largely increased the ratio of flabby, over-blowing buds, so the planting must be timed in the future that the harvest period is in early automn or late spring, early summer months.
According to our results, globe artichoke can become a perspective culture by applying cold-resistant sorts with short growing seasons, which can be produced as annual crops without hormone treatment by the appropriate timing of bud-formation.

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Motivation for and Possibilities of Increasing Table Beet Root Cultivation

Due to its manifold nutritional-physiological effects, table beet root would deserve more attention. Its active components and their role in human therapy and prevention should rank it higher in our list of vegetables.
The actual some 100 ha area under beet root could be considerably increased, if its role in nutrition and its varied product...s were universally known.
Most of the physiologically favourable effects are related to its pigment content. Pigment content can be increased by choosing proper varieties and applying cultural methods which, favourably influence red pigment synthesis (optimal sowing date).
The high Mg-content and advantageous ion ratio must also be mentioned. They can be increased by Mg leaf fertilisation, as can solids content and foliage resistance.
The special knowledge accumulated in literature ought to be made known to experts so as to help them to set up trials and to introduce results into practice.

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Technical Development and Agricultural Policy

Summarising a study work taken several decades four highly important fields are discussed in this essay:
- theoretical and practical methods of technical development,
- some special character of the technical development-friendly economic environment,
- specialities of the present situation,
- preliminary hopes for the future.

Differentiation of Agricultural Economic Organizations

A gazdasági szervezetek differenciálódásának vizsgálatát nyolc éve végezzük. A tanulmányban először adunk átfogó képet e kutatás eredményeiről. A gazdasági szervezetek differenciálódását külön végeztük el a mezőgazdasági szövetkezetekre, a mezőgazdasági társaságokra és az élelmiszer-ipari szervezetekre. Ezek... mindegyikét négy ismérv alapján osztjuk el egy-egy színvonal-skálán. Ezek a következők:
− a gazdaságok nagysága a bruttó termelési érték és a nettó árbevétel nagyságának megoszlása alapján;
− a gazdaságok eladósodásának mértéke szerint, amit az összes kötelezettségének az összes eszközállományhoz viszonyított százalékos aránya fejez ki;
− és végül a jövedelmezőség aránya alapján, amit az adózás előtti eredményeknek az árbevételhez viszonyított aránya mutat.
Terjedelmi korlátok miatt ebben a tanulmányban csak a mezőgazdasági szervezetek differenciálódásának főbb adatait mutatjuk be, azt is rövidítve. A hasonló módszerrel gyűjtött és feldolgozott adatokra támaszkodva vált lehetővé, hogy a mezőgazdasági szervezeteknek nemcsak a jelenlegi helyzetét, hanem jövőjét is megalapozottan előre jelezzük. Ebből kiderül, hogy a magyar agrárszektor üzemeinek mely típusai képesek rövid időn belül felzárkózni az EU piacaiért folyó versenyben, melyeknek kell időt és hatékony segítséget adni, hogy behozzák lemaradásukat és mekkora lesz azoknak az üzemeknek a száma, amelyeknek aligha lesz esélyük a felzárkózásra.
A gazdasági szervezetek a könyvvitelt illetően két csoportra oszlanak. Egyszeres és kettős könyvvitelt vezetőkre. Ez 2003-ig van érvényben. Attól kezdve minden szervezet kettős könyvelést fog vezetni. Addig az egyes könyvelést vezetőket el kell hagynunk, mert mérlegadataik nem azonosak a kettős könyvelést vezetőkével. Az APEH 2000-ben 9749 mezőgazdasági, erdő- és vadgazdálkodási gazdasági szervezet adóbevallását dolgozta fel. Ebből az egyszeres könyvelést vezető vállalkozások aránya 32,9%, mivel ezek általában kisméretű szervezetek, a termelési erőforrásokból és az eredményből való részesedésük számarányuknál jóval kisebb. Így a gazdálkodó szervezetek tevékenységét, annak feltételeit és eredményességét a kettős könyvelést vezetők határozzák meg. A tanulmányban ezek adatait elemezzük.

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Vision of the Hoped-for Globalization

The author analyzes the issue raised in the title in a phylosophical context from the ontological point of view, which is a branch of phylosophy. As it is known, ontology is „the science of existence”, in other words, a science on the nature of every existing thing.
The argumentations indicated by the title do not include „everything..., only those problems which are the most important in the author’s opinion. These are as follows:
a) the aim of globalization, to which we refer to here as „hoped-for globalization”,
b) the evaluation of the world in which we live,
c) the reasons for the birth of the functioning world,
d) the activities leading the world to the direction of the hoped-for globalization.
The author is aware of his position’s deficiencies, but thinks that the importance of the topic makes it neccessary to create the ideal future’s vision through discussion.

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Study of Educational Motivation among Agricultural Managers

It is a priority for companies to utilise human resources as much as possible. The form and effectiveness of the utilisation of labour largely depends on how much the manager of the company and the human resource management area support and encourage labour to develop individually and work more efficiently – as far as the size of the company ...justifies and allows. Effective incentive methods have to be set and run. Training incentives will have to play an important part in the future.
There has been no major difference between training incentives between managers and subordinates. Material incentives continue to be the key factor. For managers, exchange of information is currently a primary training incentive, as is the opportunity to meet other experts and exchange their ideas. Further, performance-related payment and bonuses applied jointly are also some material incentives. In the future, material incentives will gain in importance. For subordinates, the operation of material incentives is currently highly important as a training incentive. This is not expected to change in the future either, while expectations linked to quality work will strengthen.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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Recent Graduates’ and Language Teachers’ Assessments of ESP Preparation in Hungary

Like many teachers of ESP in Hungarian higher education, I have for several years been spurred to track and investigate those interrelationships that exist between the expectations of the multicultural European job market of the 21st century and the linguistic literacy competencies required of those young graduates that are searching for jobs i...n such an environment. What specific knowledge or rather, what specific combination of knowledge, skills and cultural competencies do they need in order to succeed? Are we, language teachers aware of the responsibilities we have in preparing our students for such challenges? This paper publishes partial results of a national survey conducted in 2000. The investigations involved 120 teachers of ESP in higher education and 71 young graduates of technical universities or colleges with different profiles. The queries covered a wide range of issues of which we will only be examining one – from two perspectives, though – here: a.) The retrospective satisfaction of recent graduates with the language preparation they received and b.) The teachers’ assessment of the importance of the components of the preparation they provided.

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