No 35 (2009)

Published October 20, 2009

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Articles

Characterisation of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS712
7-13

Fermentation at high temperature with application of thermotolerant microorganisms is a technological advantage in bioethanol production. Among the yeasts, K. marxianus has outstanding thermotolarance. The industrial application of the IMB3 strain occurs usually at 45C. The final aim of our project is the genetic modification of the K. marxianu...s CBS712 strain in order to achieve ethanol production at higher temperature than the currently applied. This requires the characterization of the CBS712 strain, with special attention to the determination of the temperature limit of its growth and the amount of the ethanol produced. The temperature limit of growth was 48C in YPD medium. Elevation of the temperature above 45C led to an exponential drop of the cell viability. Ethanol production was tested in shaking flasks, in MYFM medium, under oxigene limited conditions, applying variable concentrations of glucose (12–20%) and different temperatures (45–47 ºC). Preliminary results have revealed that the elevation of glucose concentration increased the amount of ethanol produced. The amount of ethanol (appr. 5%)+ produced at the highest glucose concentration was not different at the tested temperatures (45, 46 and 47 ºC). The observation indicates the potential in raising the thermotolerance of the strain. 

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Effect of bacteria containing bio-fertilizer on Cd-tolerance of corn and sunflower seedlings in nutrient solution
15-21

Bio-fertilizers promote the nutrition uptake, firstly enhance the baring and mobility of nutrients, on the other hand biofertilizers elevate nutrient uptake in direct way. Although there are a lot of questions about their application in polluted soils. The  cadmium ion is easily collectable and also transportable inside plants. Thus the Cd... can get into the food-chain causing public health problems. The cadmium treatment decreases the dry matter accumulation, and the intensity of photosynthesis at the experimental plants, while the treatments with bio-fertilizer increased these parameters. The cadmium accumulated in the roots, the transport to the shoots was low. We came to the conclusion, that –because of the different nutrient-uptake systemthe sunflower took up more cadmium. Using bacterium containing bio-fertilizer the toxic effect of cadmium was moderated. By our experimental results the use of Phylazonit is offered under contaminated conditions.

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Interactions of the scientific results and practice in the biodiesel plant in Mátészalka, in the eastern tri-border area of Hungary
23-27

This study summarises the observations about the operation of the first Hungarian model-like biodiesel plant (which has a producer background). In order to efficiently and safely operate the applied technology and to produce biodiesel that conforms to international standards, it was indispensable to apply the scientific results in practice and ...to develop a cooperation with the University of Debrecen (Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering). The biodiesel plant has a significant importance from the aspects of the Eastern tri-border area and the North Great Plain region. 

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Assessing of soil aggregate stability: the sand-correction and its relevance
29-47

Soil structure and changes in its quality caused by Maize stem (1), Wheat straw (2) and Maize stem & wheat straw (3) addition were assessed by three aggregate-stability indices. We observed that the NSI index formula proposed by Six et al. (2000) was nonsensitive to the changes in soil structure caused by the investigated organic matter add...ition. Furthermore it overestimates the aggregate-stability of the investigated silty sandy loam soil. Therefore we proposed a new modified NSI formula which is sensitive to the questionable treatments and that resulted in a more
realistic NSI data. The most sensitive index to differences of the investigated treatments were the Mean weight diameter (MWD) proposed by van Bavel (1953, in Kemper és Rosneau, 1986).

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New methods of compost homogeneity determination in sewage sludge based compost prisms
49-52

There is no effective method of homogeneity measurement of compost prism. The most frequently used technology is the examination of the particle distribution. This method needs a lot of time and large number of samples. The aim of our research is establishing different effective methods to determine the homogeneity of compost prisms. During our... work, we examined the homogeneity of a prism made of sewage sludge and saw-dust mixture.
The measurements were based on the different properties of raw materials. According to this we examined the homogeneity by moisture content, heavy metal content and gas distribution measurements.
The most effective method is the measurement of gasconcentration. Although gas-concentration measurements it need special equipment it has more advantages than the other methods. The examination of gas-distribution compensates the problem of sampling because the measurement is direct. It provides the opportunity to estimate the amount of emitted toxic gases and to determine the maturity of the compost and the effectiveness of the degradation.

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Phylogenetic studies of soybean pathogen Phoma species by Bayesian analysis
53-61

We carried out phylogenetic study analyzing sequences of genetic markers in the taxonomy of Phoma and Phoma-like fungi. Different species of Phoma and Phoma-like fungi occurring on soybean (Phoma pinodella, Phoma sojicola, Phyllosticta sojicola, Phoma exigua var. exigua) are difficult to identy because of their high morphological and symptomati...c similarities.
Twenty-two isolates of nine different Phoma species were obtained from reference culture collections. Seven of them were isolated from soybean, the others were collected from different hosts.
The Phoma isolates were firstly characterised by morphologically, and then we employed a part of the gene responsible for the synthesis of translation elongation factor 1 subunit alpha protein (tef1), ITS region, as well as β-tubulin partial sequences as potential genetic markers to infer
phylogenetic relationships among different Phoma species..Finally, their ITS and tef1 sequences were sequenced and analysed by Bayesian approaches.
According to phylogenetic trees inferred by Bayesian analysis of tef1, ITS and β-tubulin sequences, different Phoma species can be separated proving that these phylogenetic markers are well suited for phylogenetic studies of Phoma species. However, the phylogenetic tree does not support the traditional Phoma sections based on morphological characterization.
Bayesian analyses of the three sequences confirmed that the Phyllosticta sojicola species is clustered with the Phoma exigua var. exigua group and the Phoma sojicola is grouped with Phoma pinodella group. The molecular data provide evidence for reclassification of formerly mentioned soybean pathogens.

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The examination of relation between the C/N ratio and the biogas yields in the Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor
63-68

The Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor was built by the Bátortrade Ltd. The biogas plant contains 6 mezophil and 6 thermophil fermentation tanks, because the biogas production is based on mixed compositions. The regional plant is a multifunctional system. It produces agricultural products and biogas with high methane content. The utilization... of biogas is also accomplished here; gas-engines transform it to electricity and
heat-energy. The product electricity is used by the local plants, the surplus is sold. 
The aim of the research is the examination of the quality and quantity of the input materials that put into the mixers and follow the seasonal, periodical and optional changes of the input materials. The analyzation of the quality and quantity data can give an answer to the optional changes of biogas production because the input materials determine the composition of the examined recipe. The C/N ratio was between 11-13, the maximal value of the biogas yield was observed by 12.35 C/N ratio.

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Reduction of ragweed pollution in industrial utilization system
69-72

In Hungary 6.2 billion hectares are used for agricultural and from this area 5.0 billion are polluted by ragweed. In addition, the export of agricultural products will be threatened because of their pollution. Ragweed results also problems in human medicine because of its pollen allergy. More than 30% of the habitants are affected directly or i...ndirect by allergyc diseases. On an annual basis nearly 60 billion HUF is spent on defense against ragweed. From this budget 30 billion HUF comes from the damage of the agriculture and other 30 billion for the cost of the therapy and health insurance. To solve the problems caused by ragweed needs new ideas. The proposals are the gathering and comprehensive utilization. A leap forward, from the ragweed new, market–orientated product should be developed.

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The European Research Area: in quest of the Lisbon goals
73-79

strong educational and scientific knowledge basie is one of Europe's traditional key assets that has made it possible for our continent to become world class in several research fields. Despite these great achievements, the position of the European research and technological development (RTD) potential is currently being challenged by a rapidly... changing global competition, including the two main rivals, the US and Japan. The European Union (EU) is behind these countries as regards research and innovation output. Moreover, European research is faced with the
implications of globalisation of markets and industries, digitalisation and new technologies, as well as a need to address societal issues such as an ageing population or climate change.
At the same time, the European Union (EU) is facing the uneven distribution of RTD capacities and excellence within its own borders, especially the EU12 countries are lagging behind in this
respect.
In order to meet this twofold challenge the EU has to step up its efforts for the creation of a legitimate "European Research Area" that will make the EU more competitive on the international scene, and also encourage the less developed EU member states to invest more and better into research and innovation.

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Examination of requirements of labour market, connected with competencies of agrienvironmental engineers and nature protection engineers
81-87

The most important goal of firms is to supply demand of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is needed. The quality of human resource is determined not only by qualification, command of a language, professional experience, practise, but extant competencies that can also be developped. To choose the e...xpectant employee, it is not enough to have intelligence and proficiency. It is also decesive to examine particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s achievement that can be the right way to the success of
the enterprise. 
It is need to make the cooperation between higher education institutions and employers closer. As a result of this, employers can know theirs ways about possibilities of the new higher educational training system. They can use professional knowledge, competencies of the Bologna system’s graduates at different pointsof the economic life. The higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering requirements of labour market. According to these requirements, they can form syllabus in order to train auspicious experts.

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The effect of hybrid, nutrient-supply and irrigation on the grain moisture content at harvest and the starch-content of maize (Zea mays L.)
89-95

Maize is a worldwide dominant plant. According to nowadays plant production principles it is important to investigate and optimize the site-specific nutrient-supply and other production factors, such as hybrid and irrigation, in the case of this plant as well.
At the Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Center of Agricultural Sc...iences and Engineering, at Látókép the effect of nutrient-supply and irrigation on the quantity and quality parameters of different hybrids were investigated in a small plot long-term field experiment. In this paper we introduce the results regarding the corn moisture-content and the starch content of the yield.
We have chosen three maize hybrids – that have been bread in Martonvásár – for our investigations. The effect of macronutrients is investigated in this experiment on five levels. The half of the experimental area can be irrigated during the vegetation period – whenever it is needed – by linear irrigation equipment, but on the other half only the water amount originating from the precipitation can be used by plants.
In the year 2008 the hybrid affected the grain moisture content at P=0.1% level, while nutrient-supply had an effect at P=10% significance level. We haven’t revealed either any effect of irrigation or of interrelationship between production factors. It can be stated that there are differences between the hybrids on each nutrient-supply and on both irrigation levels. The grain moisture content increased parallel to the longer vegetation
periods.
The starch content of maize is mostly affected by the hybrid,
so on P=0.1% significance level. Regarding our results, it can be
stated, that the starch content shows a decreasing tendency
parallel to the longer vegetation periods.

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CO2 emission of the soil on barley stubble
95-102

In the last decades the physical and biological status of the soils in Hungary significantly decreased. The degree and intensity of CO2-production of the soil is in close correlation to its structural status and organic matter content. In a complex soil tillage experiment at Karcag in situ measurements have been carried out since 200...2 in order to determine the CO2-emission of the soil. Carbon-dioxide emission of the soil in the cases of conventional tillage and reduced cultivation system was analysed in a long-term cultivation experiment. The measurements were carried out after the harvest of the barley, thus root respiration was excluded. For the spatial delimitation of the measuring area a newly developed frame+bowl set was used. Based on measurements, significant differences between cultivation systems can be recognized due to the soil structure changes and its effects

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