No 40 (2010)

Published December 1, 2010

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Articles

Analysis of the main parameters of spring and summer food compound of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) on the two hunting grounds of the Alföld plain
7-10

It is widespread that roe deer are very choosy. It needs this sorting because the micro organisms, which help the digestion of high fibre plants, are missing in its stomach that is why they are mostly called „concentrate selectors” (Hoffmann, 1985, 1988, 1989).
These animals should mostly eat easily digestible plants with high nutrition ...level (pulses, buds, sprouts and flowers), and they are able to do this sorting because of their small mouth size. In winter there is a lack of these plants, so the high selectivity occurs only when the feed is in abundance.
Examining the amount and quality of vegetation available on the habitat of roe deer we can identify the species which can satisfy their feed demand. It is known, that roe deer as other large ruminants, from the plant abundance prefer certain plants and plant parts while there are others which are avoided. The identification of the eaten species and the rate of their occurrence in the feed is the first step to become acquainted with the
interaction between animal and the surroundings.

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The egg production of hungarian speckled hen and speckled transylvanian naked neck hen
11-15

Our Faculty has been dealing with the cross-breeding of Hungarian speckled hen to maintain the breed since 1977. We keep two breeds of the Hungarian speckled hen, the bare-neck variant and the feathered-neck type on the pilot farm. Because of the spread of intensive poultry keeping the population of these breeds has become endangered. Beside th...e gene preservation, we endeavour to find the best way for the production-purpose
utilisation of the speckled hen stock. We examined the egg production of these breeds.

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Analyzing the Efficiency of Dairy Farms by Using the Method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
17-21

In Hungary the dairy sector is in a long-term critical period, the stock has been in constant decline. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Hungary is slightly rising compared to the world tendency, and it is fallen behind the level in 1990. The milk consumption per capita in 2006 was with 75 liters less than the EU-15 average. Dairy e...nterprise is a very risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the fluctuation of feed and animal health products prices from the side of inputs, and by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances it is vital for the
cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in the breeding as effectively as possible. In our research we made a multi-faceted efficiency analysis of an agricultural holding’s three dairy farms. The chosen method for the analysis was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The
selection of the method is justified by the fact that there is not such a reliable database by which we could define production functions, and that DEA makes possible to manage several inputs and outputs, i.e. multiple decision problems, simultaneously. By using DEA the sources that causes shortfalls can be identified, analyzed and quantified on farms that does not operate efficiently, thus it can help the corporate decision support successfully. In the model inputs are the cost data per one liter milk – feed, medicinal product use, logistic costs -, and the main parameters
concerning the keeping and rearing. Outputs are indicators concerning milk production, milk quality and others. We prepared the model in MS Excel, the linear programming model series were programmed by Visual Basic. After solving the model, in light of the shadow prices we can determine why either of the farms is not efficient.

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Ovarian performance of Barbados Blackbelly and Dorper crossbred ewes in the mirror of body conditions
23-26

The aim of examination was to detect the puberty and to follow the ovarian cycle of Barbados Blackbelly×Dorper ewes in connection with their body conditions and the effects of meteorological parameters. The blood samples had been taken from 17th of November 2008 untill 08th of June 2009 for analyzing the progesteron concentrations, establishin...g whether they showed perpetual ovarian performance or not. The end of examination
was timed due to releasing the ram in middle of May 2009.
The daily avarage bodyweight-growth is well featured by the bodyweight tendence. The body conditions were evaluated by ultrasound tissue examination. 
During the full length of the examination the avarage daily temperature, the avarage humidity level and also the number of daily sunlighted hours were served by the Agrometeorological Observatory of the University of Debrecen.
The bodyweight tendence and the meteorological parameters were correlated to the breeding season of ewes. In conclusion the bodyweights and their tendences at the young age and the body condition parameters measured at certain anatomical areas can influence the length of the breeding season of the ewes. However the number of daily avarage sunlighted hours, the daily avarage temperature and also the humidity did not effect the cyclic ovarian perfomance of the Barbados Blackbelly×Dorper ewes in Hungary.

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Macro element contents of different genotype cows’ milk
27-31

The level of mineral elements is important factor regarding the quality of milk. The aim of our research study was to determine the content of mineral elements in milk of Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Norwegian-red, Swedish-red cows in the first stage of lactation. All cows were fed with the same type (composition) of feed and they w...ere kept under the same condition. The concentration of macroelements (K, Na, Ca, P, Mg, S) in digested milk samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

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The possibilities of the development of functional dairy products
33-36

Because of our new aged world’s emerging stress, over exhausting and move less lifestyle the pollution, the not appropriate food consuming and the low calories in the consumed food there are more and more the called „civilian” disorders.
Many people have diabetes and osteoporosis others fight with lung, cardiovascular system, problems ...and find cancers of many kinds without age exemptions. 
There could be a solution in changing lifestyle. In the developed side of the world there are presence of food lines with higher content in nutritious and/or vitamins and fibers such as: kalium, calcium, selen, magnesium, plus it contains less saturated fat. Because of that there is a new word in dietetics as functional foods.
Food having more inner content and/or biological values, so healthier, are called functional foods. Those foods components picked carefully for healthiness by modern knowledge of dietetics.
One of the best raw materials for functional food is the milk. It is already healthy by itself. The Körös-Maros Biofarm Ltd. has a goal of developing and marketing, health protecting organic functional foods in hungaricum products from cured milk. The Jedlik Ányos project helps the Ltd. to achieve this goal. We just finished an antioxidant test and we check if the antioxidant in present in the milk than we check the final product of the presence of the original antioxidant and the form and amount of it.
It had been feeding, for two weeks for three herd of cows selected for age, milk output and consanguinity. All of the three herd had been feeding with basic forage. One of the herds had been getting vitamin-E in the amount of 250 mg/bwkg the other group got licopin in the amount of 200 mg/bwkg once a day each by each orally, the third herd was the control group. 
After two weeks we toke a sample of every herd were processed the samples into yogurt and cheese. Than we checked the raw milk, the cheese and the yogurt for antioxidant content with HPLC method. The test ended with good results by finding a great amount of antioxidant, in not only the raw milk but also in the final product. 

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Changes of chemical composition and nutritive values of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) in first growth
37-42

Change in chemical composition and nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) were investigated in springtime in 2004-2006. The nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass was observed between the end of April and the middle of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, ne...t-energy growth, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent,
Metabolizable Protein N-dependent.
It was also analysed whether a relationship between the climatic factors affecting the growing period as well the chemical composition of grasses and the annual weather were looked for. For the estimation of weather conditions the climate index was calculated. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. Between 2004 and 2006, the result of the analysis of nutritive value indicated a significant difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.01 depending on the time when the samples were taken. According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing  endency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance revealed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected
in the Net-Energy growth. 

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Changing of yeaning rates using estrus synchronization and cervico-uterinal artificial insemination in goats
43-47

Breeding aims can be more efficiently and faster achieved by using AI. AI allows higher selection intensities for male selection, adequate genetic evaluation with efficient buck using and profitable farming. Moreover, the AI has very important advantages in animal health, especially in goats. By using our AI technology, these benefits can help ...the farmers in the practical life.

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Correlation between body condition change and reproduction parameters of Holstein-Frisian cows after calving
49-52

The authors examined the body condition with relation to reproduction of Holstein-Friesian cows on three dairy farms in the South Plain region. During the examination they analyzed the data of 516 births of 494 Holstein-Friesian cows. They were trying to find correlation between the first service, the service period and the service rates. The e...xaminations with regard to the correlations were different from the ones published in the professional literature. The body condition at the time of calving affected the interval from calving to the first service but not the conception
rates or the service period. The examinations did not prove any correlations between body condition changes and reproduction.

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Analysis of small ruminants’ semen under the cooling, deep-freezing and sex-orientation method
53-58

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cooling, deep-freezing and sex-orientation methods on fertility of ram and buck semen. It was pointed out that deep-freezing and sexorientation methods had a more considerable destruction on both semen compared with the effect of cooling method. However, with the development of the sex-orien...tation method, the results of  lambing had a significant increase in sheep. On the other hand, the NRR of the inseminations with deep-frozen ram semen exceeded most of previously publicated results. Being interesting, and hopefully useful benefit in practice that the analysed buck semen samples are shown more favourable results in all methods compared with the same results of rams.

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Study of the rams’ jumping order
59-62

The bevahiour of Babolna Tetra, Ile de France and Suffolk rams was studied at semen collection by artificial vagina. The sequence of rams coming out of the group to the place of semen collection and the number of jumpings needed to ejaculation were observed. It was investigated if there were changes in these characters at different occasions, a...nd did they show connection to the body condition. The number of jumpings before ejaculation was different in the different breeds. Semen was taken at the first jump from 63% of the Suffolk, 56% of the Babolna Tetra and 55% of the Ile de France rams. There was no early ejaculation at the Ile de France, but it was common among the Suffolk rams. The greatest changes in the jumping order between different semen collections were observed in the Babolna Tetra breed. There was a medium correlation in the Suffolk breed between the jumping order and body condition in the autumn and spring, which was tight and significant in winter.

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The initial steps of the black grouse repatriation
63-68

The black grouse in Hungary is an extinct but a native and protected species now. In the 19th century, they used to be common in the so called Nyírség, the North-Eastern part of the Hungarian Great Plains.
The project to re-patriate black grouse was started in 2005 by the Nyírség Company of Forestry. We studied the conditions of keeping ...and breeding black grouse from German and English specialists and we endeavoured to expand our breeding population in 2007.
We also started to make a database of the whole bird stock, containing biometrical data from every individual specimen and data about the eggs (weight, length, width) and nestlings (weekly weight growth). In the future, we will continue our work to breed black grouse and re-patriate the new offspring, which will be nearby wild populations in a similar bio-geographic environment. In a few years it is hoped we will be able to accomplish a wild population in a natural habitat. Our work is now to breed these birds in captivity – similar to their natural habitat – prior to their release into the wild, in order to preserve biodiversity for our descendants through re-patriating black grouse here in Hungary as well.

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Effect of using antioxidants as feed additives in the diet of dairy cows on the vitamin E and lycopene content of milk
69-72

In 2007, the aim of an Ányos Jedlik program and call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants – in this case: vitamin E and lycopene ... used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an
increased level of vitamin E and lycopene content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E as feed-additive can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E in the milk. The use of lycopene as feedadditive also gave good results. At the beginning of the experiment, the lycopene content of the milk was below the detection limit, while in the post-feeding milk samples the lycopene became detectable. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that further experiments and analyses are needed regarding the quality of food of animal origin and animal health.

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Factors affecting the efficiency of superovulation and embryo transfer. Season and hormonal background
73-76

Success of the embryo transfer programs is affected by many factors (breed, type, season, treatment). We assume, that periferical blood level of some metabolic hormones (IGF-1, thyroid hormones, leptin, insulin) affects the success of superovulation and ET. According to our results, there is a
significant difference between the in and out of... season periferial blood level of IGF-1 and insulin. Furthermore, decrease in the periferic blood levels of IGF-1 and insulin is less drastic in the pregnant recipients.

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