No 62 (2014): Special crop protection issue

Published November 2, 2014

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Articles

László Szabó herbologist awarded by „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection“ in 2014 (laudation)
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achievements by awarding the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists.

In 2014 László Szabó herbologist has been decorated with the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” for his “excellence in applied herbology and practical research activity on herbicide applications, moreover for knowledge transfer on weed management”.

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60th Anniversary of Hungarian Plant Protection Service
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The author briefly overview the history of the 60-year-old Hungarian Plant Protection Service, which has improved to a model by its ’golden age’ period with a well organized system and excellence of specialists on the chemistry period of Hungarian agriculture. The profound changes both in policy and economy resulted a serious structural changes which continue even nowadays. Meanwhile country borders have been opened than EU membership of Hungary have generated new challenges by appearance and spread of new pests.

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Explosion in the species number of Phytophthora genus and its influences on ecology and economy
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">This short abstract and the presentation summarize the latest changes in taxonomy and ecology of Phytophthora species. Occurrence of new P. species in the region have economy impacts as well.

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Life in two countries but one home land – Béla Lipthay (1892-1974) the entomologist
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Béla Lipthay lepidopterologist, entomologist, museologist, agriculturist, hussar lieutenant, life-saving Roman Catholic, descendant of the historical family Lipthay de Kisfalud et Lubelle did a long way from his home village Lovrin to Szécsény, the one-time land of his ancestors. His life coincided with the disintegration of the historical Hungary, and the most serious trials of the Hungarian society, culture and spirit. These changes affected him as a member of Hungarian aristocracy many times and in fact wanted to destroy him. The fortune of the ancestors have been swept away by the storms of the wars and confiscated but the human strength of character, the consciousness, the talent, the diligence, the sanctuary of faith have remained. All these made him possible to survive, to do his everyday hard creative work, which gained him affection and respect of the people living around him.

Lipthay Béla was mainly lepidopterist and dealt with the the species of Hungary. Place of his collection was first his native country, the Banat, and the area of the Southern Carpatian Montain, and after 1944 Nógrád county (Szécsény, Balassagyarmat, Nógrádszakál, Ipolytarnóc, Rimóc, Ludányhalászi etc.). The collected species belonged to Macrolepidoptera but he dealt also with the moths. During his life time he prepared a collection of 60000 individuals and maintained them until his passing away. Great part of this collection can be found at the zoological cabinet of Natural History Museum in Budapest. He discovered many species new for the Hungarian fauna such as e.g. Cupido osiris (Meigen, 1829), and described a new species (Chamaesphecia sevenari Lipthay, 1961) which later proved to be a synonym of Chamaesphecia nigrifrons (Le Cerf, 1911). He knew well the most famous collectors and specialists of the age. After the first World War he worked together with Frigyes König, László Diószeghy, Jenő Teleki, Norman D. Riley (leading entomologist of the British Museum at London, secretary of the Royal Entomological Society), Brisbane C. S. Warren ( member of the Royal Entomological Society), Lionel W. Rothschild (the most important private collector) and many excellent lepidopterists. After the second World War he was well known and respected by the Hungarian entomologists and lepidopterists: he was a friend of Lajos Kovács, the distinguished lepidopterist and Zoltán Kaszab, the eminent entomologist. He had a good relationship with such renowned Hungarian zoologists and entomologists like Gyula Éhik, László Gozmány, László Issekutz, László Bezsilla and László Móczár. He colleted also Hymenoptera, Diptera and capricorn beetles to be found in Hungarian and foreign collections Natural History Museum, (London), a Szekler National Museum (Marosvásárhely). He dealt with agricultural entomology because he was an experienced agriculturist as far as he had the opportunity to do that. He painted wonderful agricultural entomology posters and organized expositions e.g. on the pests of industrial crops and hunting at Balassagyarmat and Salgótarján.

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Phytoplasma diseases on fruits in Hungary
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In the last twenty years, three phytoplasma diseases were identified in Hungary, viz. European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum), pear decline (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri), and apple proliferation (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma mali). Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum was isolated from apricot, peach, plum and japanese plum. Cacopsylla pruni the vector of ESFY was also isolated and identified. Infection of Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri was diagnosed from pear and Candidatus Phytoplasma mali was found on apple and pear. The three phytoplasmas cause different damages on their host plants. The most economically important phytoplasma disease is the ESFY. It seriously impairs apricot and japanase plum trees. After infection of apricots and japanese plums show yellowing and defoliation, and within a few years die in apoplexy-like symptoms. The disease on japanese plum is so severe that this fruit practically can not be cultivated in Hungary. Pear decline is the most serious problem especially in intensive pear plantations. The vector Cacopsylla pyri, C. pyrisuga and C. pyricola can be found in almost all pear orchards. Because of the regular presence of psyllids in intensive pear orchards the insecticide control is necessary. Apple proliferation is not an important disease in Hungary. All of our isolations of ’Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ occured in organic orchards and record was not available in Hungary lately.

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Ideas on the European stone fruit yellows – as an entomologist can see them
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) is an important endemic disease in Europe which causes in both, the Mediterranean countries and Central Europe serious damage. Its pathogen is the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’. The treatment and healing of the diseased trees and plantations with chemicals do not promise success. Thus, prevention may be the only solution. The transmission and spread of the pathogen happen by infected propagation material (grafting) or a vector (the psyllid, Cacopsylla pruni). Mechanism of the pathogen’s transmission and population dynamics of the vector have been extensively investigated in several European countries, which may allow by the control of C. pruni even to hold back the disease. Diseased stone fruit trees and wild Prunus spp. as main host species play an important role in maintaining and spreading the pathogen. C. pruni collects the pathogen by feeding on these plants and it carries persistently ‘Ca. P prunorum’. Researchers in Hungary have been characterized the disease only in terms of plant pathology, but neither the significance of the vector nor the role of wild Prunus spp. have been studied. This summary intends to give clues to these researches, that not only axe and saw should be the instruments of national control, but knowing the role and population dynamics of the vector the stone fruit production should be more successful.

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Lessons of a stripe rust epidemic in a wheat fungicide trial in Debrecen
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">During the 2014 year a fungicide application trial was made as a part of technology development in Debrecen (East-Hungary). Both in this trial and across in Hungary a serious stripe rust epidemic developed and caused great yield losses. The first sympotoms were observed in April on one of trial plots and during some following weeks a serious infection grown up. On the base of 13 fungicide active ingredients and dosages by two spraying applications, their efficacy could be evaluated in stripe rust control. Picoxystrobin 250 g/L acive ingredient applied in 0.6, 0.8 and 1 L/ha dosages (Acanto), picoxystrobin 200 g/L + ciproconazole 80 g/L combined active ingredients in 0.5, 0.75, and 1 L/ha dosages (Acanto Plus), epoxiconazole 83 g/L, moreover protioconazole 125 g/L + tebuconazole 125 g/L combinations gave good efficacy, respectively. The yield of well protected plots were 5 to 8 t/ha, but the losses were 40-70% when fungicides with no sufficient efficacy in stripe rust control were applied. The great infection, which was observed on different grasses late in the Autumn, 2014 might forecast a further stripe rust epidemic for the 2015 year.

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Stripe rust reaction and yield response of winter cereals in bio - versus conventional farming
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In 2014, was an extremely early and heavy yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis var. striiformis) epidemic in Hungary. Significant differences were among locations, years and genotypes in the severity of infection. Ratio of the resistant and moderately resistant genotypes was higher under bio environment. The yellow rust epidemic caused significant yield decreasing in the tested winter cereals.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Pest-fauna of grasslands and seed-grass varieties
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The present paper deals with various herbivorous species living in grassland ecosystems. The research focused not only on the complexity of pests in grasslands but also on individual pest species; their biology and the severity of damage, with special regard to seed feeders of some frequent herd’s grass species. The observed pests are showed in two ways, both taxonomically and according to their localization on the crop that is where they cause damage. An attempt was made to present the results being easily understandable for practitioners.

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Describing Fusarium diseases on maize in 2013 using data from several production sites
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">As in other parts of the world, the frequency of weather extremes has increased greatly in Hungary in recent years. This means that maize production is faced with greater risks from all aspects: nutrient replacement, irrigation, plant protection. This is especially true of fusarium diseases. In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. They infect the ears, which – besides reducing the yield – poses considerable risk to both human and animal health due to the mycotoxins produced by them. Depending on which Fusarium species are dominant at a given location, changes can be expected in the level of infection and in the quality deterioration caused by the mycotoxins they produce. Fusarium spp. not only damages the maize ears but when pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. The degree of infection is fundamentally determined by the resistance traits of the maize hybrids, but also a great role in that region Fusarium species composition as well.

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Phytopatological properties of symbiotic Rhizoctonia solani strains associated to orchids
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The mycobiota of the Orchidarium of ELTE Botanical Garden (Budapest) has been studied applying aerobiological methods and isolating of tissue samples taken from 92 individuals of sixty orchid species. Among isolated basidiomycetaceous fungi 13 strains of Rhizoctonia solani were surviving in axenic culture. These symbiotic R. solani strains proved to be pathogenic on 24 cultivated plant species at varying degree. The symptoms of disease caused by R. solani strains isolated from orchids did not differ from that caused by reference strains. Three groups of strains could be separated regardless of their source or aggressivity. The host plants clustered into two groups, and their taxonomic position had no role in this respect. In general, we can assume that orchid associated Rhizoctonia strains are potential plant pathogens, and removed or withdrawn orchid stools should be treated as hazardous waste.

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Laboratory and small plot fungicide trials to control potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) next to Sepsiszentgyörgy town (Romania)
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our experiments were carried out during 2009 and 2010 years on Szépmező field, next to the Sepsiszentgyörgy town, Kovászna county, Romania. The experimental area situated at 520 - 580 m altitude, its soil is a humus rich chernozem, the yearly average temperature is between 7 - 8 oC, the precipitation is 500 - 600 mm/year. 7 different fungicides efficacy were studied for control to potato late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans on three potato varieties, viz. Ostara, Santé and Desirée.

In the laboratory the fluanizam (500 g/L, ALTIMA 500) fungicide was the best in inhibition of growing fungus while on the field trial plots cymoxanil + famoxadone (22.1 + 16.6%, EQUATION PRO WP*) and metalaxyl** + mancozeb (200 g/L + 1.600 g/L, RIDOMIL MZ 72WP) were the most effective. This facts were confirmed by statistic Duncan-test and data of yields.

The appearance of Phytophthora infestans epidemic was influenced by the climate conditions too during May and June when the minimum temperature was 12 oC, and the maximum 20 oC, the rain quantity more than 120 mm, the air humidity above 75%, these conditions promote the appearance and spread of fungus.

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Weed control with herbicide incorporation in sunflower
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">During the last decade certificate registration of 13 active ingedients were removed by European Union from sunflower herbicide market, including the basis for the incorporating technology, the trifluralin active ingredient as well. Its relative, the benfluralin active ingredient, which include the Balan 600 WDG herbicide product in sunflower, will be sold again from 2015 spring in Hungarian pesticide market. It has a broad-spectrum and lond residue besides it has very high level selectivity on sunflower. It has very good effect against annual monocotweeds such as common barnyadgrass, foxtail species, large crabgrass and wild proso millet, dicotyledonous weeds such as common lambsquarters,and redroot pigweed. It has significant side-effect against common ragweed, black nightshade, wild buckweed and prostrate knotweed. The long effect residue provide the weed-free til harvest. Benfluralin is totally selective on sunflower, as no colouring, any deformation or growth inhibition was not observed during the entire growing season. It should be sprayed 3-4 days before sowing within 1 hour and to be incorporated into the soil in 4-6 cm depth with tillage equipment. It can be used in tank mix with fluorochloridon in incorporated technology against annual dicotyledonous weeds. After the Balan incorporation can be used postemergence timing imazamox and tribenuron-metil active substances against hard kill and deeply germinating weeds. The products can not be used in tank mix with bacterial products.

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Examination of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) in Debrecen and Micske (Misca, West Romania)
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) was detected first in Hungary in 2013 in Zala County (South-West-Hungary). The disease is a serious danger for grapevine growing and grapevine propagating production. In 2014, the pathogen has been found in several new places in Hungary, viz. in Vas and Fejér Counties, and it was also detected in the former location in Zala County. The american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) is the main vector of the disease. This pest was detected first in Hungary in 2006 and then it has spread all over the country. Since we have not detailed distribution data of this pest in surroundings of Debrecen, therefore we made observations in this region in 2014. The presence of the pest was confirmed by yellow sticky cards in two locations in Debrecen and another site in West Romania near to Hungarian border. We found that S. titanus is present in each sampled sites that cause serious potential danger for the appearance and spread of Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) in this region.

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75 years of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr in Europe
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is a native pathogen in East Asia and has been introduced into North America and Europe. Historical records and population genetic studies revealed at least three major introduction events from Asia into Europe.

Nowadays, chestnut blight is present in almost the entire distribution range of European chestnut, i.e. from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus. The C. parasitica population in most countries has been studied in respect to the diversity of vegetative compatibility (vc) types and the occurrence of hypovirulence. The vc type diversity of the different populations varied considerably. Typically, a high diversity of vc types has been found in areas with a long history of chestnut blight and where sexual recombination between divergent genotypes commonly has occurred. On the other hand, newly established populations often showed a low diversity with only one, or a few vc types present.

Hypovirulence, i.e. the occurrence of C. parasitica isolates infected by Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 has been found widespread in Europe. Natural dissemination and active biological control applications have lead to a high prevalence of the hypovirus and to the recovery of many chestnut stands. Virulent cankers became hypovirus-infected within a short time and ceased expansion. There is concern that the diversity of vegetative compatibility types could increase in Europe through sexual reproduction between C. parasitica genotypes originating from different introductions. A higher level of vegetative incompatibility would not only hamper hypovirus spread within a population but could also select for lower virulence in CHV-1 and subsequently lead to an erosion of biological control. Recent studies, however, indicate that the vc type barriers are not so restrictive than previously assumed and that so far no evidence for an erosion of biological control system in high diversity populations can be observed.

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Studies on the development of food attractants catching noctuid mouths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The monitoring of the most dangerous noctuid pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be performed by species specific pheromone traps. Recently the development of traps catching female moths became the main objective of the studies. We studied the synergistic effect of vine and beer as natural additive on the effectiveness of baits containing isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid in Forró and Debrecen-Ondód. The addition of vine and beer had positive effect on catches and it was significant in case of two dangerous pest species Agrotis segetum and Lacanobia oleracea. The synergistic effect was also significant with regard to the number of detected species especially in case of lower abundances and rare species.

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Phytotoxicity levels in a wet year in an experiment on maize sensitivity to herbicides
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The phytotoxic effects of herbicides applied pre-, early post- and post-emergence were studied in maize in a herbicide sensitivity experiment were set up in Martonvásár and Törökszentmiklós. The herbicides were applied in normal and in double doses to 37 Martonvásár inbred lines and to six parental single crosses. The small-plot experime...nts were set up in two replications. The wet weather that followed the pre- and early post-emergence treatments promoted the appearance of phytotoxic symptoms on maize. The degree of phytotoxicity was recorded on the 14th day after post-emergence treatment and on the 14th and 28th days after the pre- and early postemergence treatments. Herbicides applied pre-emergence only caused slight symptoms on maize. Although the double dose increased the damage, it was still not more than 5% on average. The symptoms caused by herbicides applied in the early post-emergence stage were more intensive than those detected in the pre-emergence treatments. However, the damage caused by the double dose of isoxaflutol + thiencarbazone-methyl and by the split treatment with nicosulfuron remained below 10%. The symptoms became somewhat more severe at the 2nd scoring date. Among the post-emergence treatments the maize genotypes had the least tolerance of the mesotrione + nicosulfuron combination of active ingredients, where the double quantities resulted in 13–14% damage in average.

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