A two year (2008 and 2009) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation on the yield parameters and fruit components of processing tomato. Two different treatments were applied: regularly irrigated (RI), irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest (CO), compared with unirrigated control (RF). The optimal water supply was...calculated from average daily temperature. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. The regularly irrigated plant stands gave significantly higher yield, and unirrigated plants showed yield loss.Water supply had strong positive (R2=0.81) effect on marketable yield and average fruit weight (R2=0.78). Linear regression showed, that 46.5 mm more water supply caused 10 t/ha more marketable yield, and 13.4 mm more water supply caused 1 g more in the average fruit weight. The irrigation increased the Brix yield as well.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most extensively cultivated horticultural crops in the world.Water supply is important for yield quantity and quality. The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the canopy temperature and the stomatal conductance on processing tomato substances with different water supply, 2) to inves...tigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. There were two irrigated treatments, one of them was the reguralry irrigated plant stand which got 333 mm water during investigated period, including the precipitation and the other was the cut off substance which means the irrigation (drip) was stopped at the beginning of the ripening process and there was a control as well which got 189 mm precipitation. The canopy temperature was measured row by row with a Raytek MX 4 type infrared remote thermometer. The stomatal conductance was measured by Delta-T AP4 type porometer. There were significant differences between the control and irrigated plants according to the water supply which was formulated the canopy values. The plants with a deficient water supply were decreased the transpiration rate, therefore its cooling effect didn’t show up. The regularly irrigated tomato plants’ yield exceeded the unirrigated ones more than twice. It is emerged from the study that the irrigation has a positive effect on the amount of the harvestable yield in this year type.
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary te...sts have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
Fruit yield quality and quantity are effectively enhanced if healthy vegetative conditions are ensured. These optimal conditions — i.e. the balance between shoot development and yield — can be achieved by the rationalization of the production technologies, such as:
- reduction of the size of the crown
- adaptation of th
By establishing an improved level of plant nutrient uptake, this will ensure a healthy balance between shoot growth and yield.
On the basis of different experiments the technology of intensive foliar nutrition was studied in apple orchards in the period from 1996 until 2000. Yearly apple nutrition programs based on soil analyses. The foliar nutrition program was prepared in accordance with the soil, fruit analyses and climatic conditions. If needed, certain improvement...s were made according to the analyses of leaves and precipitation in the current year. The richness of the soil and ratios between individual nutrients gradually improved. The foliar nutrition influenced the yield quantity, quality and flower bud differentiation. The yield was doubled and the mean of five years reached 70 tons per hectare. In spite of high yields there were no problems with alternative bearing. The analyses of soluble solids, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, citric acid in the fruits and mineral soil composition indicated that the produced fruits were of high quality despite greater yields.
Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period... of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
Hungary was considered as one of the most significant raspberry producers in the 1980’ies. The acreage and the produced quantity, however, reflected a decreasing tendency during the past two decades: the 7 000 hectares existing in the year of 1990 reduced to 1 500 hectares, the current territory does not reach the 500 hectares. The annual yie...ld is only 1 to 3 thousand tons. The level of domestic fresh consumption is very low, due to the fact that it is a relatively expensive fruit for Hungarian consumers. The requirement of the processing industry is satisfied by raspberries from mainly Polish and Serbian import. These two countries belong to the biggest raspberry producing countries in the world by producing raspberries of more than 50 thousand tons. Comparing to the Hungarian production costs and yields they are able to transport their products here at a very low price, consequently they hold the prices at a low level. The profitability of the domestic raspberry production is rather unfavourable, production often shows a deficit even in orchards of good standard; furthermore the lack of labour causes an extremely great difficulty, which is an important component of the decline of the production independently from cost conditions.
County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry grown in Hungary. Successful production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during the blooming period, being most decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict y...ields expected, the characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phonological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. Data of 7 indicators have been traced: number of frosty days, the absolute minimum temperatures, means of minimum temperatures, number of days when daily means were above 10°C, means of maximum temperatures, number of days without precipitation, and number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades. The indicators being associated with certain risky events may serve for the prediction of the future recommendations to prevent damages.
Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realizati...on of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.
Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.