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Volumetric estimation of an intensive apple orchard with GIS
Published July 25, 2013
7-10

Remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of agriculture and horticulture. Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments, the 3D laser scanner is one of the newest technique, which overtop in the spatial data collection. Terrestrial laser scanning is an appropriate tool for identifying such b...iophysical parameters like the structure of trees and branches, growth of volume. Determination of these parameters are time consuming and complicated with traditional methods. The examination was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. We used Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner to estimate volumetric properties of the intensive apple orchard. Two rows of the study area were surveyed, where the height and stem diameter of apple trees were measured with Geomagic Studio 12 GIS Demo Software. Based on the built-in algorithms, the volume of each tree were defined by the software. The measured and calculated data was correlated, and middle correlations were detected. Estimated volume results could be useful for further investigation such as CO2 fi xing, which is an important factor for ecological service of the plantation.

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Monitoring of water regime in an apple orchard
Published March 15, 2011
29-32.

Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer on soil water regime by tensiometers and supporting the water management of the orchard. The results suggest that the physical characteristic of the examined soil is sa...ndy soil with low capillarity and total available water content. The soil water tensions were varied between pF 0 and 2.5 due to the extreme precipitation circumstances in 2010. Tensiometers in 40 cm depth resulted fast (few hours) and significant respond to precipitation than in the 70 cm soil layer. Based on daily measurements, the soils possess a daily fluctuation of soil moisture, however the changes become more moderate in deeper layers. In accordance with all of the results, the amount of drainable water regime was about 20.6 V/V% at 40 cm depth and 18.6 V/V% at 70 cm mainly. The harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by loosening of the compacted soil layer in 50–70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage.

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Cost and profit conditions in the Hungarian intensive apple production
Published September 19, 2007
65-68.

In this study I investigated the cost and profit conditions and the efficiency of intensive, qualitative apple production on the basis of a data collection carried out in ventures of high standard production. I concluded that the intensive apple production has an extremely high cost requirement, the production costs are approximately 1500 to 16...00 thousand HUF per hectare. In an average case, a production value of 2000 thousand HUF per hectare may be reached, which may fluctuate in a wide interval during the years. Considering the above mentioned, a net profit of 400 to 500 thousand HUF may be realized in one hectare. It should be highlighted that regarding the present marketing conditions, realizing the appropriate profit may be expected only by producing 30 to 40 tons per hectare yields and 80 to 90% food quality ratio.

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Comparative economic analysis of superintensive and intensive apple orchards
Published September 7, 2014
45-48.

The objective of thsi study was to compare economic aspects of superintensive and intensive apple production.
According to our results, conclusions and recommendations regarding the establishment of superintensive orchards are the followings: A yield of 60 tons per hectare in the average of the mature years provide a quite late payback, in t...his way yield losses should be avoided in the plantation of such a huge capital requirement. When yield losses happen, which cannot be avoided or may be avoided only in a limited way, up to 65 to 70 tons per hectare yield should be reached even in good years, in order to yield the average 60 tons per hectare in the long run. In this case yield losses from production technological mistakes must not be arisen. Inputs and professional expertise should be used in a maximum way in order to reach yields ensuring profitable production. Investment subsidies may ensure safer return. The return of a superintensive orchard from totally own sources may be risky under the domestic marketing conditions and selling prices, it is strongly uncertain.

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Drought stress monitoring by laboratory and satellite spectral methods in an apple orchard
Published April 22, 2014
7-9.

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Based on the spectral characteristics of the canopy, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data the water supply conditi...ons of foliage can be well characterized. The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During our experiments the evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by drought. Furthermore, MODIS NDVI time series data were analyzed for orchards situated in North-Eastern part of Hungary in drought effected and wet years in order to detect differences. Significant differences in NDVI values were detected after the end of June.

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The effect of summer pruning on solar radiation conditions in apple orchards
Published September 26, 2006
87-91.

The aim of this study was to measure the solar radiation conditions in the tree and around the tree of pruned (summer pruning) and unpruned trees in an intensive apple orchard. When observing the daily trend of global radiation measured, there was a great reduction at midday hours due to the shadowing effect of the canopy. The reduction reached... 70-75% before pruning, while after pruning it was only 20-25%. The relative radiation supply of the canopy space on cloudy days in the morning and late afternoon hours was higher than that of the sunny days. Mean differences between the day and night temperature reduced greatly in the period of intensive fruit colouration in August and September both in the plant stock and outside the plant stock.

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Integration of terrestrial laser scanning and spectral canopy scanner in horticulture applications
Published April 25, 2012
15-18.

One of the most difficult challenge in the everyday practice to describe the canopy growing of fruit trees in an orchard. The photosynthetic activity is the basic of the primer production of plants. The measurement of leaf area and determination of the photosynthetic activity could be occurred with some elaborated methods between experimental c...onditions. In this article we present such an integrated methodology, which is ideal to determine the geometric and spectral characteristic of fruit trees between field conditions.We have carried out laser scanning technology to investigate the geometric-topological characteristics and parallel the active infra-red sensor to collect spectral data about an apple orchard. The surveys were worked out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net in Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. This study shows the filtering and interpretation methods of created data. The produced high accuracy data can be directly used in the precision horticulture. It could serve as a guiding data to implementation a future “virtual horticulture”. Higher spatial and temporal resolution could help for a better recognition of water balance of orchards.

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Spatial evaluation of the apple trees-soil environment
Published September 2, 2009
53-56.

Remote sensing of fruit tree micro environment plays a major role in both horticultural and soil mapping applications. In frame this study presented a novel method to survey the spatial distribution of physical and water management properties of soils. The examinations were carried out at an intensive experimental apple orchard in Debrecen-Pall...ag. The examination site is the part of the Experimental Pomology plantation of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agronomy. Particle-size distribution, plasticity according to Arany, metal content by XRF spectrometry, soil physical parameters, acidity, electric conductivity of soils, were measured to obtain appropriate information on the physical properties of the soil. Based on the results, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were characterized where soil loosening should be implemented in 0,3–0,4 m depth. Spatially precise soil physical barriers were determined for applied micro-irrigation system. Based on the micro-element content and pH, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were selected where melioration and micronutrient fertilization is needed. These detailed data sources also applied to calibrate the applied airborne hyperspectral images to extend spatially these point based information.

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Experimental approach in apple tree nutrition
Published June 24, 2003
9-13.

Authors present synthesis of experimental work, performed in the last decades, for better understanding nutritional behaviour of apple trees and related problems in fruit quality. There were evidences supporting possible deteriorating role of potassium in feeble physiological status of apples, if applied in excess. More intensive studies proved... that higher potassium uptake into leaves and fruits might be also the result of increased sink power of individual fruits. Nevertheless early senescence of apples during storage and also sensibility to bitter pit were successfully related to the increased sink power of fruits, casual relations in excessive NPK fertilization, although increase in sink power need further investigations. Impaired weather conditions during early development of fruits, hostile orchard practices in pruning, thinning, irrigation and also unskilled application of growth regulators may also contribute in the enhancement of sink power and in weakened physiological status of apple fruits.

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