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  • Insecticidal effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Ietswaart) on bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say)
    84-88.
    Views:
    1651

    The effectiveness of drug plant and of essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Ietswaart) against the adults and egg hatching of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) was studied in laboratory trials in order to screen for a new potential insecticide in the control of this granary pest of beans. The adult mortality as well as oviposition and hatching capabilities were evaluated after 6 days of treatment of beans cv. `Berggold' (55 g) in Petri dishes by powdered drug (0.33 g, 0.66 g, 1.0 g and 2.0 g) and by equivalent amounts of essential oil (5 ill, 10 15 ill and 30 ill). Oregano essential oil showed both fumigant and contact toxicities to bean weevil, the later being more potent. When considering fumigant toxicity, insecticidal effect (mortality rate 82.5%) was observed 6 days after application of high concentrations of oregano essential oil (150 Al per 55 g of beans). When considering contact toxicity, both oregano drug plant and essential oil at all tested concentrations significantly increased the bean weevils' mortality rates with comparison to the controls. Also, egg laying and hatching were inhibited after treatment of bean weevil with powdered drug plant or with essential oil at all tested concentrations. Insecticidal effect of drug plants issuing from two different stocks depended on their essential oil contents. Essential oils (5 pi, 15 pi and 30 IA per 55 g of beans) induced 100% mortality of bean weevil population when applied directly to the surface of beans (55 g) in Petri dishes. The content of essential oil in oregano and oregano-based preparations for insecticidal use is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes.

     

  • Evaluation of essential oils by gas-chromatography and a new method: "electronic nose"
    85-89.
    Views:
    141

    The chemical quality of the essential oils is determined by their composition as well as by the complex aroma features. For the evaluation of odour and aroma, sensory tests are practised, especially for applications such as aromatherapy, food industry or perfumery. In the recent studies we investigated eight Mentha origins (populations of Mentha iperita, M. spicata and M. arvensis) of our genebank collection using a new and effective instrumental sensory evaluation method parallelly with the usual GC analysis.

    The results show that the examined mint clones possess different essential oil accumulation levels and special flavour characteristics, too. The GC analysis of the essential oil revealed characteristic differences at both inter- and intraspecific level in the proportion of mentol, menthon, carvon, limonene, menthyl acetate and in two not identified monoterpenes.

    In the sensory tests the special complex aroma enables a reliable distinction with a single exception among the populations by the help of the "electronic nose" equipment. The distinction among the samples based on the sensor signals of the instrument — evaluated by multivariate methods — shows a close relation with the detected monoterpene components of the essential oil.

     

  • Evaluation of supercritical plant extracts on volatile and non volatile biologically active lipophil components
    78-83.
    Views:
    133

    Authors dealt more than ten years with the analysis of supercritical extracts. For extraction (SFE) carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent. Fractionation of extracts was carried out by releasing the separations pressure at two stages. The extracts were collected as separate samples successively in time.

    The traditional extractions were carried out with steam distillation or by using n-hexane and ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus. For the analysis of volatile compounds GC, GC-MS; of non volatile compounds TLC-densitometry and spectroscopic methods were used.

    The following general characteristics were established comparing the composition of steam distillated oils with that of volatile SFE fractions. The SFE fractions were richer in monoterpene-esters and poorer in alcohols than the essential oils prepared by traditional way (clary sage, lavandel). Regarding the distributi,n of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds, the SFE fractions contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbon in higher percentage than the distillated oils (e.g. 13-caryophyllene in Salvia fruticosa, (3-caryophyllene, y­muurolene, y-cadinene in Ochnum basilicum). Further the proportion of sesquiterpenes increased in SFE fractions collected successively in time.Significant difference was remarkable in respect of the optical rotationability of lovage oil and SFE fraction which was probably caused by the different ratio between the two ligustilid enantiomers. It was verified in some cases that a part of mono- and sesquiterpenes were present originally in a bounded form (glycosides) in plants. Therefore they appeared in essential oil fractions only after previous acidic treatment (Thymus, Origanum species). During the supercritical extraction the azulenogene sesquiterpene lactones did not transform to azulenes (in chamomile, yarrow), but the non volatile SFE fractions of some Asteraceae plant contained sesquiterpene--lacton of unchanged structure in high quantity (e.g. cnicin in blessed thistle, parthenolide in feverfew). Authors obtained also SFE fractions which were rich in triterpenoids and phytosterols (marigold, common dandelion).

     

  • Comparative study of three rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) clones during the growing season
    67-72.
    Views:
    153

    The growth rate of three rosemary clones, `Harmat', 'Salem' and `Horvát', their essential oil content and its components as well as the total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity in their aqueous and ethanolic extracts were compaired. Total phenol content (determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and antioxidant power (FRAP-value) of aqueous and ethanolic rosemary extracts were measured by spectrophotometric method. The essential oil content was determined from drug by water-steam distillation. `Harmat' showed the most intensive growth through the vegetation period. The total antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts from all the three clones was similar: a decrease was observed at the end of the season. In most cases more antioxidant compounds were dissolved in the aqueous extracts. The total quantity of phenolic compounds shows a good correlation with the potential extent of stress effects. The difference among the phenol contents of the various clones can be derived from the difference in their tolerance, because phenols have antioxidant effects contributing to protection against harmful impacts. Difference between the two extraction methods (aqueous and ethanolic) is due to the distinct solubility of compounds. Some other components, like essential oil compounds also possess antioxidant effect and in this way they may influence the antioxidant power of extracts.

  • Effect of different treatments to bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) in tomato, and bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) in pepper
    49-53.
    Views:
    431

    In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.

  • Volatile constituents of Nepeta cataria L., N. glechoma Benth. and N. parviflora M. Bieb. from Hungary
    47-50.
    Views:
    120

    In the temperate zone live about 150 species of the Nepeta genus. Our investigations covered the examinations of the volatile oil containing species of the genus endemic in Hungary, Nepeta cataria and Nepeta parviflora. Latter is a relict of the ancient steppe-flora and endemic in Hungary as well. Phytochemical examination of the volatile oil containing plant material has also been carried out. Catnip growing in the Botanical Garden of PTE Department of Botany contained 0,67% volatile oil in May and 0,14% in November. Chemical character of the volatile oils were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and citronellol, citral-A, citral-B and geraniol components were identified. The composition of the oil of November samples shifted towards citronellol (65%). In both samples insecticide and repellent activity bearing compounds (+)-cis-p-menthane-3,8-diol, and (—)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol in 2-2.5 and 4-4.5% amount have been found. The catnip sample deriving from Germany contained a small amount of anetol, citronellol, neral, geraniol and geranial (6-13%), and possibly two isomers of nepetalactone in 23-31%.

    The Nepeta parviflora endemic in the Nagyvolgy valley near Nagykaracsony consisted of the same compounds in the investigated years (1998-2000). Its limonene, methyl chavicol, b-cariophyllene, b-selinene, b-cubebene, davanone, germacrene-D constituents have been identified. In the year 2000 different GC % of these compounds were detected in the different organs of the plants.

    The closely related species Nepeta cataria var. citriodora contained 83% citral, and the N. glechoma (= Glechoma hederacea) contained 41% a-cubebene, 20% patchoulenol, 7,7% spathulenol respectively. These compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry.