The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars... can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.
Sida hermephrodita or virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through between ten and twenty years. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use it as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favorable features like fast... growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in base stage of domestication therefore has a serious disadvantage the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seed/acre instead of 10-20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a disposable ,basically wild Sida population. We examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenus or endogenus infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65, 80 and 95 oC), 29,33 to 46% germinated of the seeds collected from the population of S. hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5-10 % wihitout treatment and rised using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46 %) after the hot water operation in spite of the previus studys (Spooner 1985; Chudik et al. 2010; Doliński R. 2009.). We discovered that there are a distinguished close relationship between the seeds collecting time and the infection, as well as germination percentage. Thus, 2009 season was the most favourable in case of contamination (control:17,33 and 80 oC treatment:0%) as well as germination percent. It could be concluded that, the best season for our findings was 2009 due to autumn harvest of Sida seeds. In our oppinion, the autumn harvesting should be the best time to overcome the problem of the low germination and high infection percentage.
Plum is a significant temperate fruit and a very important fruit species in Hungary as well. Cultivation has moved beyond the area boundaries of the Northern Hemisphere many centuries ago. Domestic (European) plum production has been particularly affected by the pandemic-scale destruction of the Sharka virus and worldwide breed changes. Accordi...ng to FAOSTAT (2016) data, world plum production is 12 million tones, with 36% from Eurasian, 63% from Japan and other Asian varieties. The share of American plums is only 1%. Domestication and dissemination of plums is „multi-stepped” because homemade (taste) plums are hybrids of two nature species in the first place, but Japanese plums (hybrids with Chinese plums or Prunus cerasifera) are not uniform; the role of the American plum species is much smaller, though their prospects cannot to predict with certainly. The book consists of 19 chapters, finding a complex way of summing up linguistic, historical, floristic, historical-botanical, cultivation, and morphological and anatomical knowledge.
Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectar...ines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.