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Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard
Published June 20, 2006
77-81.

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

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Phenological and fl ower morphological studies on different plum and prune cultivars
Published July 25, 2013
43-52.

20–22 and 5–7 years of kind collection of 100 cultivars studied phenology and fl oral morphological basis of characteristics in 1994–1998 and 2009–2011. The varieties were collected 3–5 trees in the gene garden, all were on C. 359 myrobalan seedling. Detecting differences between the test cultivars are suitable for stamps, and also sh...ow that relatively short-term observations are useful for describing the comparison, to distinguish varieties. The taxonomic ordination of cultivars and groups of fruits suitable to distinguish colors shown that the fl owering and ripening time, the nature of the reproductive organs and even Sharka-rate sensitivity is associated with those groups. Differences between the age of trees mainly sexual organs and fertility were shown. Affecting rate of climatic effects was not as large as the first line of erratic rainfall, air temperature spikes or possible values would be expected. The results of the breed, a gene bank of perception, in particular, the localization of hybrids, clone-type variants are useful in the analysis. Among other things – this is due to late-maturing, relatively well-stored temporarily, and not-blue plums, Sharka-infected tolerant or resistant varieties selection (cf. SURÁNYI 2013a-c) and will be disseminate in Hungary.

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Comparative study of plum cultivars belonging to different taxons during 1980-1996
Published November 15, 2004
13-19.

The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera),... Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. amara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums:

1/ unfavorable environmental conditions

2/ lack of irrigation and

3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices.

A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.

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