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31-33.
Vol 14No 32008

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ratio of blackness of the surface of stigma of sour cherry cultivars. At the full bloom time of sour cherry 100 new opened flowers were marked in the internal (Inside), external (outside), bottom and upper parts of the crown of each cultivars including sour cherry cultivars ‘Érdi bőtermő', `D...ebreceni bőtermő', `Kántorjánosi', 'R. clone', 'Petri', Pándy', and 'D. clone'. The trees were replicated four times. The numbers of flowers with black stigma were counted and the percentage of dead stigma was calculated. In addition, tissues of black stigmata were investigated for blossom pathogens by microscopy. After flowering time the fruit set of the marked flowers counted and then percentage fruit set was calculated. Numbers of counted flowers were between 300 and 980 depending on the four position of the tree. Black color of stigma could be seen only on three cultivars (`Debreceni bőtermő', Érdi bőtermő' and 'Petri') out of seven assessed cultivars. The highest numbers of black colored stigma were found on cultivar ‘Érdi bőtermő' which ranged between incidences of 12 and 21%. Black stigma was never able to produce a fruit set. Microscopic examination revealed no pathogens associated with black stigma. Different part of the tree resulted different amount of black stigma. Black stigma was the largest on the outer part of the tree on cv. 'Érdi bőtermő' but also bottom part of the tree also produced larger number of black stigma on cvs. `Debreceni bőtermő' and ‘Érdi bőtermő'. Though symptoms were not typical to frost damage, we believe that black stigma is probably due to environmental factors during flowering. This might be associated with late spring cold coming from the soil surface as the bottom and outer part of the tree was more suffered from the disease.

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31-36.
Vol 16No 12010

An experiment conducted using factorial based on randomized completely block design during 2005 and 2006. Flowers of Érdi bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány meggy before anthesis and in balloon stages were isolated with paper bags from guest pollens and pollinated in appropriate time. The averages of final fruit set showed the advantage of ...open pollination (14.6% fruit set) in compare with artificial self pollination (13.0% fruit set) and natural self pollination (4.4% fruit set). Siah mashhad sweet cherry cultivar with more than 70% overlap of flowering and 9.8% fruit set in 2005 and 17.9% in 2006 was the best among applied pollinisers for Érdi bôtermô sour cherry cultivar.Also, Siah mashhad sweet cherry with more than 50%overlap of flowering time and 25.8%fruit set was the best polliniser for Cigány megg. Among the pollinisers, Siah mashhad was the best for Érdi jubileum with more than 50% overlap and 15.22% fruit set. Meanwhile, pollens of Siah mashhad caused the increase of fruit size in Cigány meggy cultivar. phenomenon. Pollens of Siah mashhad caused reduction in total soluble solids of Érdi bôtermô fruits, however, it does not have any significant effect on the acid rate of fruits.

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74
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87-90.
Vol 15No 1-22009

At the experiment orchard of the Fruit Research and Extension Institute, Újfehértó, Hungary in spring 2000 a trial was designed included: Erdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, and Csengődi sour cherry (Prunus avium L) cultivars which were budded at 1999 on Oblacsinska sour cherry (as a dwarf inter stock), which had been budded on ...m>Prunus mahaleb seedlings at 1998 with the aim to investigate the dwarfing effects of Oblacsinska sour cherry cultivars on scion cultivars. Trees of each cultivar directly on Prunus mahaleb seedling, severd as controls. Use of Oblacsinska as an interstock reduced the rootstock trunk diameter. Trees of Debreceni bőtermő, and Cseng6di sour cherry cultivars with Oblacsinska interstock were smaller than similar trees grafted directly onto Prunus mahaleb as a rootstock. Trees of Erdi bőtermő grafted on Oblacsinska interstock which buded on Prunus mahaleb were the smallest. Growth of the trees was reduced also by using of the Oblacsinszka as interstock for other examined cultivars.

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37-43.
Vol 15No 42009

Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 an...d 2009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.

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65-78.
Vol 14No 1-2.2008

In utilisation of sour cherry cultivars, the paradigm has gradually changed in the sense that fresh consumption gained much more attention than before on a worldwide scale. Consequently, much more attention is paid to the problems connected with the storage, i.e. preservation of fresh fruit for direct consumption. It is a genuine interest of gr...owers, traders as well as of consumers to be informed about the possibilities of preserving economically the fresh status for a longer period after harvest during the warm summer weather in addition to the lengthening of the harvest season by choosing cultivars of different dates of ripening. Recent results of purposeful experiments indicate that the storability of the fruit of 6 main Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is on the same level ('Érdi bőtermő, 'Debreceni bőtermő’, 'Újfehértói fürtos', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Éva', 'Petri'). The traditional conditions facilitated the maintenance of freshness over a 5-week-long period, and the loss of volume was less than 7%. During the first 2 weeks, there was no difference between the cultivars regarding loss of volume and decay, moreover, the effect of time elapsed after harvest and of adversities of transport was not significant. It could be stated that 2 week of storing is safely feasible. We need only 2 °C temperature and 90% of relative humidity. The relations of oxygen and CO2 of the atmosphere is less decisive than temperature alone. No essential difference has been registered between the storing in plastic trays versus plastic boxes either. A study was performed to assess the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) effect on Hungarian sour cherries growing in Iran (`Érdi bőtermő and ‘Érdi jubileum') shelf life. The harvested fruits stored at 0 °C under modified atmospheres (15% 0, and 10% CO2 and 75% nitrogen) for 6 weeks. Descriptive analysis showed that sour cherry stored in control condition had a higher deterioration rate than those stored in under modified atmosphere, which showed a lower rejection rate and a longer shelf life than those stored in modified atmosphere.

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63-66.
Vol 10No 32004

Cherry rootstock breeding started at the Department of Fruit Science, SSU Budapest by the late 50-s and the activity can be divided into three main groups. In the first stage the activity was focused on collection of native mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.) varieties lead by L. Sebők. After evaluation in the nursery and orchard tests... there are four promising rootstock cultivars selected from this material: 'Korponay' used as self fertile seed tree, its seedlings are recommended for sour cherries. The mahaleb varieties 'Bogdány' (vigorous), 'Egervár' and 'Magyar' (medium vigour) are propagated by cuttings. The next project has started in 1979 with the aim to select self fertile mahaleb seed trees producing homogeneous seedling populations with reduced vigour. Inbred populations from isolated flowering self fertile trees were produced and planted out in 1980. The inbreeding of 'Korponay' self fertile P. mahaleb variety resulted in specimens with different fruit colour (yellow, red, black), fruit shape and size. From among them self fertile trees were selected with various growth characteristics. Seedlings of that self fertile mother trees (S2 population) were tested in seedbed, they showed homogeneous phenotype characteristics as liners in the nursery. As rootstock of 'Érdi bőtermő' sour cherry in the orchard most of the S2 lines proved to be less vigorous in comparison to SI popuplations. 'Érdi bőtermő' trees budded on certain S2 lines in the orchard are more productive than those on S1 ('Korponay' seedling). Characteristics of the S2 generation as seed tree were studied as well. We expect to get morphologically homogeneous seedling populations with different growth vigour and good productivity in the later inbred generations. In the last couple of decades the research activity concerning ground-cherry and its hybrids resulted in dwarfing rootstocks. Prunus fruticosa Pall. hybrids from the natural flora of Hungary were collected and artificial hybrids were created between P. fruticosa and mahaleb cherry. Most of them are in the initial tests, only one of them is before registration, named 'Prob', which is a dwarf rootstock for sweet cherry. By the screening of new hybrids medium vigorous or semi dwarfing and precocious rootstocks seem to be promising for the cherry industry.

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75-80.
Vol 15No 1-22009

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pánd...y 279. Úfehértói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.

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109-111.
Vol 11No 22005

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Pru...nus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

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109-118.
Vol 13No 32007

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sour cherry growers but in some year sour cherry growers had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much rainfall in the harvesting season. The cracked sour cherry fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. Cracked and infected... fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation because they lost their market value by the pour fruit quality. There are two possibilities to protect fruits against the rain induced fruit cracking. The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways like sprayings different mineral salts, hormone and other type chemicals against the rain induced fruit cracking. Several calcium formulas calcium chloride (CaC12), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH),) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) can be sprayed in appropriate solution concentration.

The aim of our trial is to determinate the fruit cracking susceptibility of wide grown Hungarian sour cherry varieties and find the most effective calcium formula and its concentration for spraying in orchards to prevent the fruit cracking. In the first trial year (2006) cracking index of tested sour cherry varieties were determined under field and laboratory conditions. Under field conditions were not found differences between cracking tendency of tested cultivars. After results of immersing fruits in distillated water for 24 hours tested sour cherry varieties were divided to three groups by the susceptibility to rain induced fruit cracking: very susceptible (`Maliga emléke', 'Piramis', 'Érdi jubileum', 'Erdi nagygyümölcsű’ and 'Meteor korai'); susceptible ‘Érdi bőtermő, Tandy 279' and Cigány 59.; moderately susceptible/tolerant ("T" and "R" clones). In the second trial year (2007) calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) were sprayed in 0,35m/m%; 0,5m/m% and 1,0m/m% solution concentration. One more commercial product "Damisol-Kalcium" was also applied in the advised 1,0m/m% concentration. Like in the trial year before (2006) under field conditions we did not kept differences between the cracking susceptibility of varieties and calcium treatments. As the result of laboratory testing (immersing calcium treated fruits in distillated water) we kept that calcium chloride (CaCl2) seems the most effective against the fruit cracking in 0,5m/in% solution concentration. The other calcium formulas also decreased the cracking ratio but in less scale.

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99-101.
Vol 13No 32007

Determination of flower microphenology for selecting the suitable pollinizer for sour cherry cultivars is of significant importance. In order to study the flower microphenology of Hungarian sour cherry (Bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány) cultivars in Mashhad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted in I998. 1999, 2...005 and 2006, using a completely randomized design with ten replications. The phenological stages were determined from before opening up to browning phase of stigma. Duration of pollen shedding, stigma receptivity and climatic factors were measured. The relative time of flowering between cultivars varied from year to year. The data indicate, the thermal variation strongly contributes to significant differences in duration of stigma viability, although there wasn't a significant difference between cultivars in anther dehiscence period. Phenological stages of flowers are highly affected by meteorological factors in various years.

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93-101.
Vol 12No 32006

In the laboratory of Conserve-technology in the Research Institute for Fruit Growing, Company of Public Utility, Cegléd, 6 sour cherry, 6 apricot, 5 peach and nectarine, 6 plum and 4 Japanese plum varieties (canned fruit, juice, dried fruit, deep frozen). The products were evaluated by organoleptic methods on a scale of 1-5 steps. The varietie...s receiving at least 4 points were listed (in brackets also the respective product was indicated): `Kántorjánosi' sour cherry (for all the three purposes), '13' variety candidate (canned and deep frozen), 'T' var. cand., (canned, deep frozen), 'Érdi bőtermő' (dried fruit), 'R' var. cand. (deep frozen); ‘Ceglédi arany', 'Ceglédi bíborkajszi', 'Magyar kajszi"C. 235' (fibrous juice); `Babygold 5', 'Redhaven' peaches, and 'Caldesi 2000' nectarine (canned); 'Stanley' plum (canned), 'Besztercei Bt, 2' (deep frozen).

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