Vol 13, No 2 (2007)

Published May 15, 2007

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Articles

Recent findings of the tree fruit self-incompatibility studies
7-15.

This review endeavours to collect all recent and substantial contributions to the quickly deepening fields of tree fruit self-incompatibility studies and hence updating previously published reviews. Studies carried out to discover the molecular basis of gametophytic self-incompatibility are summarized and a newly described model for the solanac...eous plants is also outlined. We describe recent findings in all economically important fruit tree crops involving apple, European pear, sweet and sour cherries, almond, Japanese plum, sloe, Japanese apricot, European apricot and peach. Additional DNA sequences are now available for both the pistil and pollen component genes in several species and their molecular, evolutionary or economic implications are discussed in the light of the fruit setting behaviour.

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Spectral properties of strawberry plants
17-22.

Strawberry varieties were studied in 3 different growing areas of different soil- and ecological properties in Hungary. We have measured the optical spectra of the leaves together with their nutrient content and performed sensory examinations on the deep frozen and melted fruit. The 6 varieties were Elsanta, Marianna, Spadeka, Symphony, Camaros...a, and Raurica. The 3 sites were Újfehértó, Pölöske, and Kecskemet. Colour of the leaves was characterised by their lightness and dominant wavelength. Under non-optimal soil and ecological conditions the varieties could be distinguished by their colour — the leaves became lighter and more yellow. The fruits did not produce the genetically determined taste if the plant can not grow in optimal circumstances — we found a negative correlation between the leaf colour in flowering time and the fruit flavour. Leaf colour measurements performed in flowering time make it possible to improve fruit quality by changing the nutrient supply between flowering and ripening.

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Investigation of the cultivation value of old grapevine cultivars in Tokaj in 2004-2006
23-27.

Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.

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Nutritional values of traditional open-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thumb]) varieties
29-31.

The aim of our experiments was to investigate the internal quality parameters of some old melon and watermelon landraces or varieties whether they have any desirable characteristics. Measurements were carried out using 8 different types of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and 8 accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus ...em>[Thumb]), which were self pollinated under greenhouse conditions. Besides the determination of dry matter content; soluble solids, titratable acidity of the fruit juices, investigation of carbohydrates, total phenol content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method. We found some accesions both among melon and watermelon varieties, which could be characterized by outstanding inner content.

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Casing-material experiments with Pleurotus eryngii
33-36.

Our research led to the gathering some relevant information about the growing technology of the Pleurotus eryngii. In some European countries this mushroom is quiet favourable. The detail of the growing technology has not been determined in detail yet. These partial results led us to carry on with the research towards a development of ...covering technology. With some new series of experiments and with the use of some new covering mixtures and their application of different thickness we are hoping to clarify the details of the technology.

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The effect of wear of petrol engine power brush cutters on their vibration exposure
37-44.

The matter of noise and vibration exposure has an accentuated emphasis in the environmental protection policy of the European Union. In practice, the focus is on the evaluation of noise -strain. The evaluation on human beings' vibration-strain is in focus in recent years. At the Technical Department in Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of... Horticultural Sciences we evaluate in PhD training form the possible ways of alleviation and revealance of noise and vibration-strain in gardening devices and machineries. According to the latest development in gardening culture, small gardening machines are more and more widespread. There is a law in Hungary for the compulsory grass-cutting, especially on 'ragweed' (Ambrosia elatior). Along highways, public territories, parks workmen at least six months are in charge to terminate these weed-crops meanwhile they are endangered by serious harmful effects. The operators of hand-held power tools are exposed comprehensive levels of hand-arm vibration at the tool-hand interface. Many studies indicate that extended exposure to mechanical vibration can induce degeneration of the vascular and sensioneural systems in the hand called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The precise mechanism for the initiation and development of HAVS is unclear to date. Measurement and risk assessment of hand-transmitted vibration is mostly based on the guidelines and dose-response relationship provided in the ISO-5349 standard. These guidelines suggest that the magnitude, frequency, direction and duration of vibration exposure are the most important variables for the risk assessment of hand-arm vibration. This current study is focusing on brush cutters owned by one of the biggest caretaker company. These machines have similar brand and age but different in usage time. We inquired seven brush cutters through two years. The manufacturer repaid the vibration level of the new machines, but they doesn't examine, whether extent of the vibration emission is changing for the proper use. We wanted to know that are there any differences between the values of vibration specification after certain time of usage. Is it possible to monitor the alternate movements on graphs according to the vibration sciences? By Ill octave band frequency and FFT analysis we can point at that these brush cutters can show differences in critical frequencies. These biases can influence the hand-arm system and its vibration-strain burdening.

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Sweetcorn production from transplants
45-48.

In our trial we tried to find out how the time of propagation and transplanting influenced the growing season of sweet corn along with some major properties relevant to quality. The following technological variations were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening): transplanted plants with floating row cove...r (with 2 planting dates); transplanted plants with no row cover: direct seeded plants with no row cover. The 21 day transplant growing period reduced the growing period by 16 to 20 days, compared to the technology used in the existing practice of production. Earliness had a negative influence on ear size, nonetheless it is worth while to attempt since the market is not so exacting with new products in the early period. Covering the seedlings in the early season was clearly beneficial, as the floating row cover provided protection for plants against lower night temperatures which are common in this period.

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Effect of different treatments to bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) in tomato, and bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) in pepper
49-53.

In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of... tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.

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Preliminary observations on winter-hardy Agave spp. in Hungarian rock garden
55-59.

In the recent three decades several winter-hardy succulent collections were established in Hungary. These collections belong to winter-hardy cacti and their companion plants the agaves too. The agaves are much more rare than cacti and only few species can tolerate Hungarian climate conditions without any guard. When selecting the species, winte...r-hardiness has to be considered which includes all factors in the winter period. Observations were performed for frost resistant or winter-hardy Agave species in private collections. The recent paper gives information on 7 species of Agave and try to help the determination of the plants outside in the ground.

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Colour stability of the flowers in some modern rose varieties in Hungary
61-66.

A variety trial has been carried out to study the colour changing — colour stability of the flowers of some modern roses, especially of Hungarian varieties. 100 floribundas and polyanthas were observed. Colours of the petal surface were examined at three fenological stages of the flowers: at the bud, at the young open flowers and at the aged ...open flower stages. The colour difference was described in HLS standard. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in both studied classes, but more floribundas bred in Hungary had good colour stability than polyanthas. The best Hungarian floribundas were 'Pest' and 'Remenyik Sándor emléke', although 'Regen', `Szent Lász1ó em­léke' and 'Szabó Dezső emléke' were quite good. The best Western-European floribunda rose was 'Perneille Poulsen'. Their colour stability was reliable in different situations. Colour changing of the two best varieties was almost unperceivable from the bud to the young petals and from the young to the aged petals. In the polyantha class there was only one perfect variety: the Czech `Cs1 Cerveny Kriz'. The 'Fairy Damsel' was almost excellent as well. The best Hungarian polyanthas were `Domokos Pál Péter emléke' and 'Savaria'.

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Results with the establishment of in vitro culture of Leucojum aestivum
67-71.

Leucojum aestivum is a native, protected ornamental and medicinal plant in Hungary and in Ukraine too. The aim of our work was to establish in vitro cultures of this bulbous plant. Prior to surface sterilisation the old leaves and roots were dissected from the bulbs and they were stored in a refrigerator (2-3°C) for different periods ...(1 week for the first starting experiment and 5 weeks for the second one). After sterilisation, bulbs, bulb scales and leaves of the bulbs were placed on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium with 1 mg/1 benzyl-adenine (BA) and 0,1 mg/1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). At the first starting experiment 81,3%, and at the second one 92,3% of the explants turned to be sterile. Bulblets and roots were developed on the explants in the case of using bulb plates together with bulb scales and leaves as inoculua. The best result was achieved after 5 weeks chilling and it was possible to gain little bulbs from the bulb leaves too.

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Plant of interest — Prunella vulgaris L.
73-77.

Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.), known as a remedy traditionally used as Chinese medicine, was neglected in modern pharmacy until the 20th century. Although in the Middle Ages it was respected for its wound-healing effect, the usage of this medicinal plant was confined just to the conventional pharmacy. Nowadays, because of the great ...dislike of synthetic materials, however, self-heal has become one of the most important target plants again. Owing to its valuable active constituents, besides its wound-healing effect, the plant can also be used as hepato-protective, antioxidant, anti-HIV, anti-cancer remedy, and it is effective against Herpes virus, as well. Its taste — and odourless extracts are applied by the food industry as natural food preservatives. Taking into account the importance of self-heal our aim was to introduce this plant species more detailed with regard to its active agents, effects and cultivation methods.

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Yield and composition of supercritical fluid extracts of different Lamiaceae herbs
79-82.

In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and powdered cude drugs of Thymus vu...lgaris, Thymus pannonicus, Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officnalis and Salvia officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-30 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C) and time (5-60 min) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedur, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus pannonicus and Salvia officnalis, extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich thyme extracts were analysed by GC-FID. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.

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Preliminary biochemical studies on a model growing of different tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivars
83-87.

The aim of our preliminary studies was to characterize the change in the activity of enzymes PPO and PDX, the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and soluble protein content of different tobacco cultivars measured in tobacco plants during cultivation. The results suggest that a shorter cultivation period (13-14 weeks) is ...more favourable for tobacco plants as protein source than for tobacco industrial use (16-17 weeks). We found some correlation between the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and PPO activity data. In the increasing and maximum period of total phenol content the PPO activity was high. But later because of decrease of substrate phenol content the activity of PPO also decreased. We found higher soluble protein concentrations in Virginia than in Burley varieties.

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