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Heavy metal content of flood sediments and plants near the River Tisza
Published December 31, 2008
120-131

The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the
source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,
aquatic environment etc.) but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards,
pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can ...be found here. They play a significant role in the life of the
people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the
river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of
them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we
study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain
and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical
distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studied
area does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of
metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals
in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality
of flood.

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31
35
Spatial and temporal pattern of soil pH and Eh and their impact on solute iron content in a wetland (Transdanubia, Hungary)
Published December 31, 2008
34-45

Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils.
The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil and
vegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation) and the pH,
Eh of soils and solute iron in a hea...dwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have
been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia,
three patches and two species), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), common nettle (Urtica dioica). The
spatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography,
climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the
shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR). Root
respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured
individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown
seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions) and higher pH values
were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants
causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an
essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effects
through plants on wetlands.

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28
57
The Mass Ratio of the Epiphytic Periphyton of the Nyéki-Holt-Duna
Published September 19, 2016
232-241

The knowledge of the periphytic structure is important for the fact that the composition of epiphytic periphyton indicates the ecologically different habitats, the biological state of water-quality and its changes. Plants like reed, great bulrush, saligot, pondweed, and water-rose separately were collected from the different sampling sites for ...the epiphytic periphyton examination. We performed the comparability of the monitoring systems based on the periphyton category (mass), the group (ash%), the type (chl-a%), and the character (AI), and we used the biological indicators to determine the ecological state. Taking into consideration the examined years and the results of the analysis of the mass and the chemical composition of the periphyton, by means of the NTPI, the overweight of the good ecological state is characteristic of the Nyéki-Holt-Danube.

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169
2
Heavy metal concentracions in the soils and vegetation of the Béke-cave watershed (Aggtelek-karst, Hungary)
Published December 28, 2015
51-58

Our research took place on karstic area in Aggtelek National Park in Hungary. The heavy metal content of soils with three different texture and in the plants of the natural vegetation (oak- , hornbeam-, corn leaves, greenery) were studied. Ratio of total (acid soluble) metal contents and bioavailable metal contents of the soils were calculated.... Based on these results we determined the mobility of the metals in different soils. Used the metal contents of the soils and the vegetation we set up a sequence of the mobility of the metals between the soil and the most frequent plant species.

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159
5
Examination of the heavy metal uptake of carrot (daucus carota) in different soil types
Published December 31, 2009
56-70

In this paper the heavy metal uptake of carrot (Daucus carota) is studied in sample areas with
different soil types. Our aim is to examine how the different soil types possessing different
characteristics affect the heavy metal uptake and distribution in the plant. Correlation analyses were
carried out in order to determine which of th...e total heavy metal concentrations and soil characteristics
(pH, CaCO3-content, humus content, granulometric composition) play the most important role in the
uptake of the Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn and in the metal distribution in the examined plant. Soil and
plant samples were collected from 5 different Hungarian areas in July, 2008. In the cases of soils with
different soil characteristics, the examined plants are supposed to give varied physiological responses.
During the examination we proved that the genetic type and the heavy metal content of the soil do not
significantly affect the heavy metal uptake of carrot. The granulometric composition of the soil has
the most considerable effect but this factor only affects the rate of the metal uptake in 50% of the
examined heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Zn).

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64
93
Human health risk assessment: a case study of heavy metal contamination of garden soils in Szeged
Published September 26, 2009
11-27

The soils of the big cities, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by
heavy metals. The surroundings of the roads with heavy traffic as significant metal emitter source can
be contaminated by heavy metals. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads
can be potential risky for people sin...ce unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into
organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden.
Most metals are well-known to have toxic characters but we have known little what extent these
metals exert influence on people living directly along road with busy traffic. During our research,
metal contamination has been investigated in the gardens near the roads with heavy traffic in Szeged
by measuring of metal contents in soil and plants samples. Enrichment factor has been calculated with
the help of control soil samples far from roads having heavily traffic. Besides determination of the
metal content of soil and plant samples, soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility has
been examined in order to characterize the buffering capacity of the studied soils. The health risk
quotients have also been determined to evaluate human health risk of the contaminated soils.

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29
Challenges of municipal waste management in Hungary
Published December 31, 2008
78-85

Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were
defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in
Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most
important areas are related to the developing projects... of municipal solid waste treatment (increasing
the capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building
of new composting plants). The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the
prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic
recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We
inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The
main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass
packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary
financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national
waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of
national waste management on the short and long term?

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Public perceptions and aesthetic preferences of lakeshore landscape: the example of Lake Velence (Hungary)
Published September 30, 2020
31-42

Earlier, intervention programs and tourism development projects in the lakeside area of Lake Velence have led to the diversification of lakeshore landscape and shoreline. In the current study, we investigated the public aesthetic preferences of varying lakeshore landscapes, driving factors (which cause preference deviation and visual discomfort...), and judgments of perceived beauty of 14 lakeshore scenes. The study also examined the differences in preferences of lakeshore landscapes between experts and waterfront residents. The results indicated that landscape characteristic and maintenance state have a significant impact on the receptor’s preference. In the investigation of lakeside landscape preference with different natural degrees, both the near-natural lakeshore and the natural lakeshore are lacking attention and attraction. Though natural (“wild”) lakeshore beneficial to the birds and other wildlife, overgrown riparian / aquatic plants and rigid shoreline caused visual fatigue and boredom feel. These findings provide a reference for the forthcoming lakeside intervention projects and land-use decisions.

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