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Heavy metal loads in the soil of Debrecen
Published December 31, 2007

Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil
of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects
of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy
metal content of the soils hav...e been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.
Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the
sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the
flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the
forested area of the Nagyerdő were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the
soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, CalciumCarbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution) on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the
soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy
soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds,
recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

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Examination of the heavy metal uptake of carrot (daucus carota) in different soil types
Published December 31, 2009

In this paper the heavy metal uptake of carrot (Daucus carota) is studied in sample areas with
different soil types. Our aim is to examine how the different soil types possessing different
characteristics affect the heavy metal uptake and distribution in the plant. Correlation analyses were
carried out in order to determine which of th...e total heavy metal concentrations and soil characteristics
(pH, CaCO3-content, humus content, granulometric composition) play the most important role in the
uptake of the Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn and in the metal distribution in the examined plant. Soil and
plant samples were collected from 5 different Hungarian areas in July, 2008. In the cases of soils with
different soil characteristics, the examined plants are supposed to give varied physiological responses.
During the examination we proved that the genetic type and the heavy metal content of the soil do not
significantly affect the heavy metal uptake of carrot. The granulometric composition of the soil has
the most considerable effect but this factor only affects the rate of the metal uptake in 50% of the
examined heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Zn).

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Human health risk assessment: a case study of heavy metal contamination of garden soils in Szeged
Published September 26, 2009

The soils of the big cities, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by
heavy metals. The surroundings of the roads with heavy traffic as significant metal emitter source can
be contaminated by heavy metals. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads
can be potential risky for people sin...ce unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into
organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden.
Most metals are well-known to have toxic characters but we have known little what extent these
metals exert influence on people living directly along road with busy traffic. During our research,
metal contamination has been investigated in the gardens near the roads with heavy traffic in Szeged
by measuring of metal contents in soil and plants samples. Enrichment factor has been calculated with
the help of control soil samples far from roads having heavily traffic. Besides determination of the
metal content of soil and plant samples, soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility has
been examined in order to characterize the buffering capacity of the studied soils. The health risk
quotients have also been determined to evaluate human health risk of the contaminated soils.

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Heavy metal concentracions in the soils and vegetation of the Béke-cave watershed (Aggtelek-karst, Hungary)
Published December 28, 2015

Our research took place on karstic area in Aggtelek National Park in Hungary. The heavy metal content of soils with three different texture and in the plants of the natural vegetation (oak- , hornbeam-, corn leaves, greenery) were studied. Ratio of total (acid soluble) metal contents and bioavailable metal contents of the soils were calculated.... Based on these results we determined the mobility of the metals in different soils. Used the metal contents of the soils and the vegetation we set up a sequence of the mobility of the metals between the soil and the most frequent plant species.

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Evaluation of environmental condition: water and sediment examination of oxbow lakes
Published December 27, 2011

As a result of the river regulation a number of oxbow lakes have arisen in the floodplain of the Lower-Tisza. The floodplain lakes represent natural values and major recreation areas of the lowland region. Due to the human activity the oxbow lakes' condition declined. It can be shown by the water quality, the channel discharge by deposit, the h...igh eutrophication of the lakes and the heavy metal elevation of the sediment. Discovering these processes, analysing the condition and recultivation of the oxbow lakes came into prominence only in the past few years. Our research aims to conclude the current environmental pollution of the oxbow lakes from statistical analyses of the heavy metal content of the sediment and from the water quality data. The oxbow lakes have been classified by chemistry instead of chemical. Results of the research show differences between the floodplain oxbows and the lakes outside the dam in terms of the quality of the sediment and the nutrient content of the water.

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Land use changes and their effect on floodplain aggradation along the Middle-Tisza River, Hungary
Published March 21, 2019

Land-use changes and their effect on overbank sediment accumulation were investigated on the
floodplain of Middle-Tisza River. Military survey maps (1783, 1860, 1883 and 1890) and aerial
photos (1950, 1965, 1980 and 2000) were used to evaluate land-use changes and to calculate the
vegetational roughness of the area. To determinate the ...rate of overbank sedimentation sediment
samples were collected from a pit, the grain-size, content of organic matter, heavy metal content (Pb,
Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd) and pH were measured. Until 1950 meadows and pastures were typical on the
floodplain, gallery-forest was along the river, the oxbow-lake and the artificial levee. Notable landuse changes were detected in the second half of the 20th century, as the aerial photo taken in 1965
shows extensive forestry in the area. These land-use changes affected the average vegetational
roughness, as it has been doubled since the disappearance of grasslands. Land-use changes highly
affect the aggradation, as the increased roughness decreases the flood velocity on the floodplain,
causing accelerated aggradation. Using Pb marker horizons and grain-size changes the studied
sediment profile was compared to dated profiles (Braun et al. 2003), thus, the sediment accumulation
rate could be determined for the periods of 1858-1965 and 1965-2005. According to our
measurements the accumulation rate was doubled since 1965, very likely in connection with the
doubled vegetational roughness.

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Heavy metal content of flood sediments and plants near the River Tisza
Published December 31, 2008

The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the
source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,
aquatic environment etc.) but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards,
pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can found here. They play a significant role in the life of the
people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the
river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of
them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we
study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain
and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical
distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studied
area does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of
metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals
in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality
of flood.

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