Vol 15, No 1 (2021)
Floods slowing down due to the significant decrease of the gradient have considerable sediment accumulation capacity in the floodplain. The grade of accumulation is further increased if the width of the floodplain is not uniform as water flowing out of the narrow sections diverge and its speed is decreased. Surface roughness in a study area of...492 hectares in the Upper Tisza region was analysed based on CIR (color-infrared) orthophotos from 2007. An NDVI index layer was created first on which object-based image segmentation and threshold-based image classification were performed. The study area is dominated by land cover / land use types (grassland-shrubs, forest) with high roughness values. It was concluded that vegetation activity based analyses on their own are not enough for determining floodplain roughness.
Statistics on international students distinguish between diploma mobility (full-time students abroad) and credit mobility (part-time courses, student exchanges such as Erasmus+, etc.). In terms of economic benefits, their common feature is mostly realised in the spendings by the foreign students in the host country. The comparison of the host c...ities reveals that Budapest should be considered as a separate category being different from the other cities in many respects. Although, the assessment of the other three university centres (Pécs, Debrecen and Szeged) received similar evaluations (close average values) but some kind of order developed between them in which Szeged and Pécs are perhaps regarded in a little bit more favourable position than Debrecen. There is a lot to be improved to broaden the studentification process in these cities particularly in four fields. The evaluations can certainly be considered useful in the sense that they help to identify those services which are problematic in any terms (price or quality).
In this study two high-resolution satellite imagery, the PlanetScope, and SkySat were compared based on their classification capabilities of urban vegetation. During the research, we applied Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classification methods at a study area, center of Rome, Italy. We performed the classifications based on the spect...ral bands, then we involved the NDVI index, too. We evaluated the classification performance of the classifiers using different sets of input data with ROC curves and AUC values. Additional statistical analyses were applied to reveal the correlation structure of the satellite bands and the NDVI and General Linear Modeling to evaluate the AUC of different models. Although different classification methods did not result in significantly differing outcomes (AUC values between 0.96 and 0.99), SVM’s performance was better. The contribution of NDVI resulted in significantly higher AUC values. SkySat’s bands provided slightly better input data related to PlanetScope but the difference was minimal (~3%); accordingly, both satellites ensured excellent classification results.
This paper introduce a historical geographical study on the process of land cover transformation in the Bükk Region, which can be regarded as a two-faced area concerning its anthropogenic disturbance. Based on historic mapping that began as early as the late 18th century, a database was produced, and the data was interpreted in the...context of economic and social processes that took place in the area. Results could be presented in maps using the so-called Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI). These maps demonstrate the peculiar land use pattern in the Bükk Region, namely co-habitation of the significantly transformed margins and the natural or quasi-natural central part. Between them, there are linear areas of intermediate disturbance. These areas, however, due to the foundation and activity of the Bükk National Park and modification of their economic value after the change of the political system, have not increased during the last several decades; rather a re-naturalization of the landscape is aimed.
The retention of surface runoff and the preservation of soil moisture are among the most important water-related ecosystem services. In addition to field monitoring, advanced remote sensing techniques have been devised to reveal soil moisture dynamics on agricultural land. In our study we compare two soil moisture indices, TWI and SAVI, in thre...e agricultural areas with different land use types. The SAVI has been found suitable to point out spatial variation on the moisture conditions of the vadose zone.
In recent decades, several new trends can be observed in the field of energy management, one of which is the increase of the role of renewable energy sources. As a result of this fact, local authorities in Hungary have also devoted increasing attention to this question in recent years. The first step of their interventions is the drawing up of...the appropriate development documents, relying on which specific steps/investments can also take place later. In the spirit of the above, the objective of the present paper is to analyse the development documents of local authorities in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. The most important findings of the study could be summarised as follows. Firstly the Integrated Settlement Development Strategies prepared for the period 2014 to 2020 dealt with the topic of renewable energy sources in much more detail than earlier documents. Secondly from the various renewable energy sources, the development document devoted most attention to solar and geothermal energy and thirdly the appearance of renewable energy sources in the development documents shows a close link with the size of the settlements.
Sediment transport is a vital component in hydrological and fluvial geomorphological studies, however, the temporal and spatial changes in sediment fluxes, and the efficiency of bedload samplers are rarely analysed, as bedload measurements are quite difficult. The aim of the present study is to measure the bedload transport of the sand-bedded M...aros River (Hungary) at low stages using the Helley-Smith bedload sampler. In order to understand the variability in the bedload transport, the water stage and discharge across the channel section were also measured. The variability of the bedload was caused by an active in-channel bar and translational sediment pulses. The created bedload transport rating curve could be applied just below 300 m3/s water discharge thus further measurements are needed to evaluate the bedload transport of higher discharges.
This paper aims to examinate and to present the political geographical work of Rezső Milleker. Although political geography was not his main specialty, time to time he tried to create something of scientifical value in this field of science, but the attention of professional circles and the success avoided him. By evaluating these works we try... to answer the question, where his place was in Hungarian political geography between the two world wars.
Keywords: Milleker, political geography, Zeitschrift für Geopolitik, ethnic maps
One of the main threats of our time is the increasing water demand not only globally, but also locally. These are often met at the expense of ecological water demand, jeopardizing the structural and operational conditions necessary to maintain good ecological status in aquatic and wetland habitats. This is why it is of great importance to explo...re possible water retention options. In 2019, based on the long-term data series on the water level of River Tisza, we studied the frequency and extent of flooding in the floodplain between Tiszabercel and Gávavencsellő, where there are valuable wetlands, including a ‘sanctuary’-type backwater. This was necessary because recently the floodplains have undergone negative changes. Their water volume has gradually decreased, their valuable wildlife has become rarer, some of them have completely dried out in the autumn and even one of them has burned out. From the analysis of the examined 48-years data, it could be concluded that flooding was relatively frequent in the sampled area, but the extent of water coverage had no significant effect either in space or time. It was also found that only water levels above 700 cm (based on the water meter of Tiszabercel, 98.36 mBf) could adequately ensure that the water bodies are filled up and flushed out. However, there is little chance of this, because of four reasons: (1) water levels of this height are becoming rare; (2) the duration and height of high water levels are mostly short in time; (3) water levels of several water bodies are artificially decreased; (4) the drainage effect of the River Tisza – which has been significantly incised after the river regulation – prevails in the area. Due to all, in the future, there would be a great need to maintain the water levels in the floodplain wetlands as efficiently as possible after the floods – for which we have made specific proposals for the places and methods to preserve the ecologically necessary amount of water.
As a survey by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2019) confirms coffee is consumed in 83% of Hungarian households, thus our country can be considered to be one of the major coffee drinking nations. At the end of the 19th century and the turn of the twentieth Budapest with its internationally famous and unique coffee culture...was known as the coffeehouse capital. Post-modern tourism revived this tradition and coffee became once again a favourite consumer item while cafés turned into scenes of community life. The latest stage of the coffeehouse renaissance was partly due to the increasing role of American type café chains including McCafé, Starbucks, California Coffee Company etc. and the drop in the price of the Arabica coffee. Our research focuses on the impact of this new type of coffee consumption wave on the coffee habits of Hungarians. The American café chains have become widespread in Europe and their ability to keep the price of coffee low worldwide demonstrates significant market power. While coffee consumption has several benefits from a physiological point of view, its environmental impact is detrimental to the planet. Coffee cultivation contributes to the destruction of rainforests, the changing of the soil and last but not least results in a high amount of solid waste due to the popularity of coffee capsules. Our treatise explores these concerns as well.
A survey based on online and face-to face interviews with 104 persons who live in the Tiszazug in the central part of the Great Hungarian Plain. According to the answers the character of the landscape here would change dramatically by disappearance of oxbow lakes, floodplain forests and vineries. The decreasing population and aging of the citiz...ens result in decreasing intensity of landuse, increasing number of abandoned buildings and the attractiveness of the landscape is spoiled by illegal waste disposals and weedy water banks.