Cumanian mounds, „kurgans” have a great importance in the history of the Carpathian Basin from cultural and nature conservai on, landscape, archaeological, botanical and zoological viewpoints. The kurgans are more thousands years nai onal values heritages. In Hungary these appear with the highest number in the fi eld of Great Hungarian Plai...n. Their size and relai ve height about 1-12 m. Unfortunately, the diff erent agricultural aci vii es resulted in their coni nuous degradai on and their number also decreased over the past centuries. There were remarkable changes in agricultural regulai on concerning Cumanian mounds in the EU – and in Hungary too – in 2010. They were declared protected landscape elements therefore they became part of cross-compliance. In our research we will check the results of the new regulai on in relai on to the changes in the state of Cumanian mounds in Békés County.
Coenological based diversity examinai ons were carried out in the Börzsöny off set on the sessile oak dominated stands. To reveal the sylviculture’s eff ects on the biodiversity, in 6 forest stands, characterised by same standard parameters were carried. The Shannon- and Simpson- diversity indices were used for comparison of biodiversity va...lues of diff erent age-groups. Altogether 88 vascular plant species (15 trees, 11 shrubs, 62 herbaceous taxa) were ideni fi ed in the stands of sessile oak woodlands. The diversity of the canopy level was the highest at the 19 year-old stand, and the lowest at the oldest, 92 year-old stand. The diversity of the shrub layer was the highest at the 61 year-old and lowest at the 2 year-old stand. In case of the ground level increasing diversity values were noi ced between the 2 and 61 years old groups, then the diversity values decreased at the stands which are older than 61.
Many of the climate change researchers believe that in this century the average temperature is expected to rise apart from the climate becoming more extreme (Solomon et al., 2007). These weather anomalies can significantly influence the living beings, including the range limits of plants. This could seriously effect our indigenous tree species,... some prognoses assume that the 82-100 % of the zonal spread of the sessile oak will have fallen outside the optimum climate area in tthe Carpathian Basin by 2050 (Czúcz et al., 2013). Such and similar forecast make the climate tolerance and health condition examinations of the sessile oak stands particularly important, so that we can measure the changes in plant communities. We have examined the health conditions of two elderly - over the age of 100 years - stands with the FAKOPP +D Acoustic Tomograph. One of the stands can be found in the Börzsöny Mountain, s while the other one in the Gödöllő Hills.
In recent decades in Germany the soil structure is greatly improved on a substantial part of the rable land. Soil erosion can be observed less commonly. Since the 1970s in Germany the intensity of soil disturbance is significantly reduced. The less disturbed soil has more mechanical load, namely the stability. The perforated structure wit...h stable biopores ensures ecological functions, such as infiltration, aeration, root permeability, fertility. For this reason, soil compaction and soil erosion occur less frequently, they can be detected only in exceptional cases. But in Hungary, the same can not be said therefore it is a desirable objective to explore the cause of differences. Usually the best soil structure can be found on the arable lands without rotation cultivated. In Germany we could study the condition of soils in farms which using no-till system. We have analyzed the effect of soil cultivation methods on the soil structure.