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The emergence of digital transformation in the automotive industry - Industry 4.0 in Hungary

Nikoletta Tóth-Kaszás
Pannon Egyetem Nagykanizsa - Körforgásos Gazdaság Egyetemi Központ
Ildikó Ernszt
Pannon Egyetem Nagykanizsa - Körforgásos Gazdaság Egyetemi Központ
Erzsébet Péter
Pannon Egyetem Nagykanizsa - Körforgásos Gazdaság Egyetemi Központ
Bálint Mihalics
Pannon Egyetem Nagykanizsa - Körforgásos Gazdaság Egyetemi Központ
It is no exaggeration to say that the digital transformation can be seen as both a paradigm shifts and a real technological revolution (Perez, 2010, Mergel, et al., 2019). In order to get to know the preparedness of the Hungarian automotive industry players in the topic, we conducted an empirical research in October - December 2020. The main goal ...was to determine the level of automotive actors in the digital transformation process. Company leaders were primarily asked about their progress in the digital transition process, its opportunities and challenges, organizational culture, and potential human resource management responses. This study focuses on the digital transition concentrating on the following dimensions: strategy and leadership, human resources, business processes, supply chain, manufacturing, products and services. Based on the results, we classified the examined Hungarian automotive industry actors into clusters.
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Analysis of the Competitiveness in the Agri-food sector: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean Region

Giovanna Maria Borges Aguiar
Corvinus University of Budapest
Jeremiás Máté Balogh
Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries are among the global leaders in the production and exports of agricultural and fisheries commodities, accounting for 15% of the world’s average agri-food export from 1995 to 2019. With rising global market competitiveness, considering the agri-food sector, it is important to assess if the region ca...n compete against other global rivals, and in what products. Accounting for regional potential economic power, remarkable agricultural food export and market expansion, this paper explored the LAC agricultural trade patterns and export competitiveness through the analysis of the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index, and its modifications - SRCA (Symmetric Revealed Comparative Advantage), RTA (Relative Trade Advantage, and RC (Revealed Competitiveness) - in the agricultural sector for the period of 1995-2019. This paper contributes to the literature by presenting the export characteristics in Latin American developing countries, which can be an important instrument for decision-makers in the agricultural trade policy. Throughout the research period, the results indicated that Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico were the TOP agri-food exporters in LAC. The highest RCA, SRCA, and RTA were found in Guatemala, whereas the greatest RC was found in Argentina. At the product level analysis, oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruit, industrial or medicinal plants, and straw and fodder (HS12) were the most exported items at the 2-digit level. Fruit and nuts, edible; peel of citrus fruit or melons (HS08) had the most competitiveness in the worldwide market, with the highest SRCA and RC indices, whereas coffee, tea, mate, and spices (HS9) had the highest BRCA and RTA values. The evidence suggests that among the TOP 10 exporters in LAC, all indices in the global agri-food trade are said to be relatively stable, whereas survival rates do not persist over time.
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The impact of regional trade agreements on bilateral trade flows: A Systemic Literature Review

This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the impact of regional trade agreements on trade. The empirical literature is arranged based on the econometricmethods used to estimate the gravity model. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were highlighted. Papers covering RTAs from Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Europe were... reviewed to gain a more representative understanding. The covered empirical literature suggests that the Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator is more reliable than OLS in estimating gravity models, as it can deal with zero trade flows. The Fixed Effects (FE) approach produces more consistent estimates than the Random Effects (RE) approach when quantifying the effects of RTAs. This is because it allows one to control for the unobserved time-invariant variables. Surprisingly, the covered literature suggests that a great majority of African RTAs generated trade, regardless of the method of estimation used. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: F13, F15
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