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The institutional background of local sustainability strategies
Published July 28, 2008

The system of local sustainability strategies is shaped by the intentions of the central government and local initiatives together. From the aspect of the hierarchy of government organization in Hungary it means that there are institutions on the central government’s side – different ministries or other governmental institutions – the rol...e of which is mainly coordination; and local governments (regional and local as well) also form their institutions at the municipality.
It is important to examine the institutional background, as in Hungary the formation of sustainability policy is still in its infancy, so it is well worth taking the institutional background of countries the circumstances of which are similar to ours and have successful sustainability policies as a basis. In this presentation I will examine whether the top-down or the bottom-up approach is chosen, which institution is in charge of the process, what the legal background is like, and what sources are available for use in these countries.

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The use of MFA indicators in the characterization of the settlement sustainability
Published September 2, 2009

One of the key sustainability challenges for the coming decades will be to improve the management of natural resources in order to reduce current levels of anthropogenic environmental pressure and respect the biological and physical limits and the carrying capacity of the planet. The first step towards meeting this challenge is an enhancement o...f the understanding of the material basis of our society. In the past 15 years, scientists in several research institutes have created a fast growing field of research, a new family of different methods, named material flow analysis (MFA). These instruments have an increasing policy relevance: international organizations (UN, EU, OECD) have encouraged member states to establish MFA accounting in their statistical programmes and urged governments and economic actors to use these tools. In this paper I present selected examples to reveal how the MFA approach and derived material flow indicators can be used for the evaluation of sustainability policies at municipality level.

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The ain impacts of the Lisbon Strategy on tobacco growing
Published May 23, 2006

The Lisbon Strategy of the EU promises a more competitive Europe with more and better workplaces, in addition to sustainability.
Tobacco production is one of the most controversial industries of the agricultural sphere in the European Union. This crop is a „leader” of the world’s economic growth, a promoter of globalisation and has bee...n an economic channel between America and Europe for more than 500 years. It is also a motor of technical development, due to its inducing effect on profitability and work efficiency. The tax competition of the states and the increase in consumption have become such a self-inducing system in which the increase of production created an increasing number of jobs, especially in tobacco growing, where the replacement of manual labour was much slower than the increase of the demand for raw material. The fact that smoking is becoming general should be handled as a social demand, though its health risks cannot be denied. However, the extreme objection to smoking cannot be accepted, especially not when it evokes social strains and concludes that people smoke because of tobacco production, al though the real situation is the opposite: People smoke in Europe, so the tobacco should be grown here, as is in our economic interest.
There is a contradiction between the strategic objectives and the roles of the industry which should be ceased urgently. Al thong aim is the creation of jobs, stopping tobacco growing could result in unexpected agro-social disadvantages. Rejection of the industry’s sustainability questions the realization of the keystones of the strategy. Competitiveness, sustainability and social cohesion should be implemented as a unit of the strategy also in tobacco growing.

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The Aalborg process and its Hungarian connections
Published May 23, 2006

The four European Conferences on Sustainable Cities and Towns gave birth to documents that are important from the point of view of local sustainability. These are, in chronological order, the Aalborg Charter – 1994 Aalborg, the Lisbon Action Plan – 1996 Lisbon, the Hannover Call – 2000 Hannover, and the Aalborg Commitments – 2004 Aalbor...g. Throughout the process, the emphasis gradually moved from planning to the implementation of plans.
Today, there are more than 2000 signatories of the Aalborg
1A tanulmány az OTKA T-046704 sz. pályázatának támogatásával készült.
Charter. The cutting edge of the process are Italy and Spain, the municipalities of these two countries add up to 80 per cent of all signatories. In both countries, the national commitment is given, but there is not a body that could coordinate the activities related to sustainability, so local governments play the major role in it. The constitutions of these two countries also pass on some duties that are relevant from the point of view of sustainability within the competence of local governments, and allow resources to implement them. In the case of the United Kingdom, the commitment of the national government, and especially the Prime Minister, is the major factor in the movement towards local sustainability.
The former socialist countries in Europe, as well as Hungary are relatively underdeveloped economically, so the social and environmental pillars of sustainable development are pushed into the background behind the economical pillar. As a result of the lack of national commitment, there is no guidance and there are no case studies available, so only a small part of local governments are informed of this important international movement, and so are committed to it. The lack of resources is also a problem. The consequence of all this is that there are 35 municipalities from the Eastern European countries that joined the EU in 2004, and only four from Hungary – to mention by name Aba, Kecskemét, Monor and Nagykanizsa – that signed the Aalborg Charter.

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On the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape in the Northern Great Plain region
Published November 20, 2011

This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view ...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.

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Interpretation of sustainability in the utilization of renewable energy sources
Published November 20, 2011

The utilization of renewable energy sources (res) is crucial regarding to sustainable reconstruction of energy systems. The target is a balanced, sustainable development of Hungarian energy management considering equally the ecological, social and economic aspects. There are many different technologies of utilization of res varied by sources, c...onversion processes, size and products. The comparison of each technology and their sustainability assessment are required by the importance of efficient remodeling of energy infrastructure. The group of attributes was composed by numerous important parameters in the course of our analysis with the choice experiment (ce) methodology. The estimation of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was possible by this method and the preferences of the statistical population was concluded. So thus the utility derived from each attribute was estimated. The result of the ce analysis for the population of experts is demonstrated in the current phase of our research.

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Thoughts about the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape at the region of the Northern Great Plain
Published December 16, 2012

This paper tries to find connections between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretation of sustainability from the view ...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change, the polarization of landscapes, will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region form two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of landscape. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analysing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation and the tasks of the future within the subject matters.

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Inhibitive factors of the Local Agenda process in Hungary
Published July 16, 2007

The concept of sustainable development is one of the most fashionable concepts in the world nowadays, but Hungary – 15 years after the Rio conference – is still far behind the times: it is the only country in the EU 25 that has not prepared a national sustainable development strategy.
The situation is not encouraging in the field of loca...l sustainability either. Although there are initiatives that can be described as ones that were prepared in the spirit of local sustainable development, no municipalities have working, formulated sustainability strategies.
One of the most important messages of sustainability is that the consultative process between the local government and the community can have far reaching consequences, which can influence the municipality’s life for a long time. In my paper, I explore the inhibitive factors bearing this duality in mind, as the lack of top-down initiatives together with the low number and the low support of bottom-up approaches have led to this image which is not too flattering for Hungary. I also aim to show, through the example of other countries, how these inhibitive factors can be reduced.

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Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
Published April 23, 2014

Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of... soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

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A Few Thoughts About the Implementation of Sustainability in Hungary
Published December 10, 2002

UN Conference on Environment and Development óta (1992 Rio de Janeiro) a sustainable development fogalma bevonult a nemzetközi szervezetek és a nemzeti kormányok programjaiba. A fenntartható fejlődés megvalósítására sok országban stratégiákat dolgoztak ki. Magyarországon ilyen stratégiai a dokumentum ma még nincs, de valószín...ű, hogy rövidesen elkészül. A szerző ehhez az előkészítő folyamathoz kíván hozzájárulni javaslataival. A fenntarthatóság (sustainability) megvalósításához hosszú időre és konkrét cselekvési programok összefüggő láncolatára van szükség. A szerző javaslatai szerint a következő 3-5 évben tíz prioritást célszerű támogatni a kormány és a civil társadalom részéről:
1. Környezetvédelem
2. Környezeti nevelés és tudatformálás
3. A szemét, a hulladék eltávolítása és hasznosítása
4. Környezet-egészségügy
5. Környezetbiztonság
6. A közlekedés korszerűsítése
7. Agrár-környezetvédelem
8. Környezetbarát technológiák és termékek
9. Lakossági részvétel a döntés-előkészítésben és döntéshozatalban
10. Az állami és önkormányzati költségvetések szerepe

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Soil – Environment – Sustainability
Published November 13, 2012

The future and life quality of human society depends primarily on the success of the sustainable use of natural resources: the geological strata–soil–water–biota–near surface atmosphere continuum. Soil is the most significant conditionally renewable natural resource in our Earth’s system, with three unique properties: multifunctionali...ty; fertility/ productivity; resilience. In the case of rational land use and precise soil management soil does not disappear, and its desirable „quality” does not decrease considerably, irreversibly and unavoidably. Its renewal, however, requires continuous care and permanent activities.
Consequently, the prevention, elimination or moderation of soil degradation processes and extreme hydrological situations (the two main factors limiting desirable soil multifunctionality) with rational land use and soil management are the key factors and priority tasks of sustainable development on each level and in each phase of the decisionmaking process.

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Environmental Conditions of the Berettyóújfalu Sub-Region
Published December 6, 2005

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the environmental conditions of the Berettyóújfalu sub-region, which is geographically located in Hajdú-Bihar County. I specifically target the regions’ relief, soil and hydrogeological conditions, climate, flora and fauna, natural value and present nature conservation activities.
On the basis o...f my investigation of these points, I can state that although this sub-region has unfavorable soil conditions, polluted surface and subsurface waters, it is rich in thermal waters, nature reservations and wildlife. It’s disadvantageous characteristics can or should be amended, while the advantageous ones should be utilized by considering the principles of sustainability. At the end of this paper, I will make recommendations in connection with the latter point.

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Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
Published November 13, 2012

Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

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Evaluation of the correlation between SPAD readings and absolute chlorophyll content of maize under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019

Currently, one of the most important objectives of agriculture is to maintain the principles of the sustainability. The use of precision technologies in agriculture belongs to this topic. The use of precision technologies is increasingly widespread in the cultivation of various agricultural crops, including maize. Sensing is an important part o...f these techniques. In our experiment we compared two methods: measuring relative chlorophyll content and the method of determine the extractable chlorophylls. The experimental plant was maize (Zea mays L.) and the measurements were performed at an early development stage (V8) of three genotypes. Three levels of nitrogen (0; 80; 160 kg ha-1) were applied during the experiment. The relative chlorophyll content was measured by SPAD-502 (Minolta, Japan) and a handheld GreenSeeker (Trimble, USA) device. The extractable total chlorophyll content decreased in parallel with the increased nitrogen level. The obtained SPAD values were diversified furthermore the NDVI values have not been changed for the effect of different nitrogen fertilization. In the early stages of development of maize, these parameters need to be complemented with other measurements to provide reliable information about the crops nitrogen status.

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Setting up the operation of a Science Centre using process management tools
Published April 8, 2014

Nowadays, Science Centres, which have a very long tradition in Europe, are continuously spreading in Hungary. These institutions primarily aim at raising public awareness of science in young people via informal learning (hands-on, minds-on etc.) methods. Based on this phenomenon, the construction of Scientific Adventure Park has been started in... the Debrecen Botanical Garden. In addition, the Municipality of Debrecen established a new organization who will be responsible the reaching the defined goals and sustainability of Debrecen Science Centre according to the Application Form. Therefore, it will be designed a new institution with characteristics of Science Centre and provide innovative and complex services in the segments of culture and education. In this paper, I'm searching for answers to the question if based on this process-oriented method and  management approach; it is possible to design operation system capable of achieving the strategic goals mentioned above.

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Agri-Environmental Issues in the National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Member States of the Enlarged EU
Published December 6, 2005

In preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg), almost all EU member-states and some accession countries presented their national strategies for sustainable development (NSSD) during the summer of 2002. Along with other countries, Hungary is only now setting up this important document. Everywhere during the last d...ecade, as in the EU countries, the intention was to involve the environmental problems into other political questions (agricultural, energy and transport policy, etc.). Today the strategy-builders have given up the sectoral view because of difficulties and setbacks, and use a view aiming the problem.
Agri-environmental issues appear as the elements of sustainability in the national strategies. For example, in accordance with the danger of global warming, the emission of green-house gasses of agriculture; in line with eco-efficiency, the production of renewable raw materials and energy sources originating from agriculture, and, in relation to changing lifestyle, food-safety and the future of biological agriculture will be disputed. With this study, I investigate the main characteristics of sustainable development strategies at both the EU level and at the level of the different member states from an agri-environmental point of view.

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Optimized balance between crop productivity, restoration and maintenance of vital soil functions and soil carbon sequestration and storage – the SmartSOIL (FP7) project
Published November 13, 2012

Soils provide the most indispensable function of supporting the production of food and feed for a growing human population. At the same time they provide a range of regulating and supporting functions related to climate change and removal of greenhouse gases. The majority of the soil functions are closely linked to the flows and stocks of soil carbon (SOC); low levels of both flows and stocks may seriously interfere with several of the essential soil functions and thus affect the ecosystem services that soils deliver. Soil degradation is considered a serious problem in Europe and a large part of the degradation is caused by intensive cultivation practices in agriculture. The aim of the SmartSOIL project is to link the results of different scientific fields through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach and as a result develop a decision making tool contributing to sustainable development.

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Soil Fertility Management in Westsik’s Crop Rotation Experiment
Published December 4, 2001

The crop rotation experiment, established by Vilmos Westsik in 1929, is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary. It is still used to study the effects of organic manure treatment, develop models and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. Westsik’s cro...p rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of fertilisers, green, straw and farmyard manure. The experiment also provides a resource of yield, plant and soil data sets for scientific research into the soil and plant processes which control soil fertility, and into the sustainability of production without environmental deterioration. The maintenance of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment can be used to illustrate the value of long-term field experiments.

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Opportunities of renewable energy use in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties
Published February 17, 2015

Today it's an important role of the renewable energy resources, improving energy efficiency, thereby contributing to sustainable, ecofriendly use of local energy resources. Globally intensify the requirements and considerations related to environmental conservation. In this light, the main objective of the Hungarian energy concept is to maintai...n long-term security of supply, the economy and the environment occurring contradictions. So there is a need for systems that, in compliance with EU environmental directives, acceptable cost level will ensure the desired and expected security of supply. In the study, three companies and other technical parameters of these are examined. For each undertaking, different results were observed. For two undertakings, we are talking about realized investments, in one case a prognosis was examined. All three companies contributed to the requirement of renewable energy sources reaching 13% in Hungary by 2020.

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Land use, water management
Published November 13, 2012

Due to the prognosed population increase to 9.2 billion people by 2050, the world’s crop production does not have any other chance than to increase production. This demand is a huge challenge for agriculture. Based on the forecasts, the growth rate of production of the main cereals will decrease as a result of the effect of soil, water, the i...ncreasing fuel and fertiliser prices and the impacts of climate change. Methods ensuring sustainability have to be preferred. Precision agriculture is the most effective method of crop production. We have to apply minimum cultivation in order to protect the soil surface, maintain its moisture content and increase its water reception ability. In addition to the localised use of fertiliser, sowing seed, irrigation and pesticides, it is also important to apply them in a targeted way on the basis of plot imaging. The use of the new technology results in significant cost saving and it could also reduce environmental load.

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New wonder of an old hormone: Hungarian sour cherry varieties as natural melatonin sources
Published February 17, 2015

Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society During our experimental work an effective extraction procedure has been developed for melatonin. Further chromatography was developed the quantitative and qualitative determination of melatonin. A compound that was equal to the standard was purifi...ed from the extract by preparative HPLC technique and the structure of the purified sample was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. Based on our measurements, harvested in the state of biological maturity Hungarian sour cherry cultivars contain high levels of melatonin.

Our results show that "VN4" variety has extremely high melatonin content, 9.893 ug g-1 and suggest that "VN4" which were selected from the "Bosnyák" varieties is melatonin accumulating. The average value of the melatonin content of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is 2.319 ug g-1.

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Application fields of wood as a renewable energy source in Europe
Published July 18, 2012

Fuelwood, and wood wastes provide almost half of the renewable energy production of the European Union. Enhancing the use of wood in renewable energy production has more constraint than wind- or solar energy. Forests in the EU member states are sustainably used, they are increasing both in terms of area, and growing stocks. There are possibilit...ies to enhance the fallings and use more fuelwood. Short rotation coppices could fulfill the long term demand for fuelwood; because these plantations surpass the dendromass yield of forests.

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Environmental Indicators – Agri-Environmental Indicators
Published May 4, 2004

close relation. This means that policies related to the economy and the environment cannot be handled without each other. The United Nations Conference (Stockholm, 1972) was the first global conference to signal that environment concerns have increasingly become subject of mainstream socio-economic policies. The process started in the Seventies..., laying emphasis on environment protection, plays an important role in the policy of international agencies. The use of environmental indicators is essential for monitoring the effects of environmental measures. The best way of evaluating sustainability if the results can be compared on a global level. International efforts are being made by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat) and other international agencies to develop a framework for environment statistics. This study deals with these frameworks, paying attention to agri-environment indicators. Hungary became a member of the UN in 1955, of the OECD in 1996, and will become a member of the European Union in 2004. The first summary in connection with environmental indicators of Hungary, taking the OECD Pressure – State – Response framework as a basis, was published in 1994. As a result, comparability of environmental indicators for Hungary with those used international are given.

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Comparison of Pálfai’s drought index and the Normalised Precipitation Index in the North Great Plain region
Published February 17, 2015

Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society and creation of job opportunities in Hungary. Our country has resource-related strength of agriculture, because we have more than 4.5 million ha for agricultural production. Agricultural production can be influenced by several factors, including c...limate, hydrology, soil conditions and antropogenic impacts. Climate determines the quality and quantity of the crop yields. The climate conditions in Hungary are variable and it shows spatial and temporal extremes. As a result of this, drought have become more frequent in our country (2003, 2007, 2009, 2012), which is reflected in the decline in yields as well. In the present study, Pálfai's Drought Index (PAI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were compared 2003–2012 in Debrecen. The temperature and precipitation data were calculated from data provided by a local meteorological station to work out PAI, while the SPI-3 index values were downloaded from the database of the European Drought Observatory. This allowed to drought assessment in a local and regional scale. Our study was supplemented with SPI-3, soil moisture anomalies, PAI and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluating the impact of drought on agriculture.

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The Role and Significance of Soil Analyses in Plant Nutrition and Environmental Protection
Published March 4, 2006

Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas...t seven years, representatives from Central and Eastern Europe have analyzed nutrient management practices in their respective countries. According to a joint memorandum agreed upon in 2000, in the countries awaiting accession, the quantity of nutrients used per hectare is considerably smaller than the Western-European usage targeted through special subsidies. The current low nutrient usage contradicts the principles of sustainability and that of the efficient use of resources, jeopardizing soil fertility.
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.

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