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  • The effect of apoplastic pH on the nutrient uptake
    65-71
    Views:
    95

    The pH of soil and rhizosphare –around the roots- determine the mobility and solubility of nutrients. The exudates organic acids of plant able to modify the pH, as well as the microorganisms also take part in mobilization of nutrients. The nutrient solve mostly in mildly acidic and neutral pH. The either assumption of utilization of nutrients is the uptake by roots and of course uptake to the cells to take part in metabolism. The pH of apoplast fluid determines the solubility and uptake of nutrients to the cells.
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nutrient solution and apoplastic pH together with a bacteria based biofertiliser (Phylazonit MC®) on nutrient uptake and pH of apoplast fluid in case of nutrient solution grown plants in laboratory experiment. According to my results, the bicarbonate increased the pH of nutrient solution in due to influence the solubility and uptake of nutrients. The given bicarbonate to the nutrient solution and infiltrated into the apoplazma also modified the pH of the apoplast fluid of the test plants. The effect of bicarbonate and biofertilizer were different on the pH of the apoplast fluid and nutrient solution in nutrient solution experiment. 

  • Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    211-219
    Views:
    168

    Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resistance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

    This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

  • The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations
    187-192
    Views:
    90

    Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
    significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
    crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
    stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
    The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
    we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
    Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
    · Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
    · The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
    · Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
    climatic anomalies.
    · Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
    · The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
    · Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
    modifier factors.
    Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
    fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
    method.

  • Influences of water deficiency on the productivity of young plants at different sites
    371-378
    Views:
    127

    Water deficiency has become one of the most limiting factors of crop production in Hungary as the tendency in annual amounts of precipitation shows a decreasing tendency; therefore, it has become similar to those of Southern Europe. The most significant decrease in precipitation occurs typically during spring, approximately 20% of the data expressed in the averages of the last century. Studying the relationship between water deficiency as a stress factor and nutrient supply is important in order to improve the production efficiency of crops. Nowadays, this problem receives outstanding attention presented in numerous papers both in Hungary and globally, however, there are several questions yet to be answered. Our pot experiments were carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to establish new data on these relationships. Experimental soils were typical for Western Transdanubia, taken from long-term field experiments representing four different site characteristics of the region. It was concluded from the results that drought periods during the early growth stages (i.e. 4–5 weeks after emergence) of plants may result in significant decreases in both dry matter production, nutrient concentrations, nutrient uptake and shoot:root ratios. Better nutrient supply, especially potassium, plays a significant role in reducing the negative effects of water deficiency.

  • Effect of bacteria containing bio-fertilizer on Cd-tolerance of corn and sunflower seedlings in nutrient solution
    15-21
    Views:
    73

    Bio-fertilizers promote the nutrition uptake, firstly enhance the baring and mobility of nutrients, on the other hand biofertilizers elevate nutrient uptake in direct way. Although there are a lot of questions about their application in polluted soils. The  cadmium ion is easily collectable and also transportable inside plants. Thus the Cd can get into the food-chain causing public health problems. The cadmium treatment decreases the dry matter accumulation, and the intensity of photosynthesis at the experimental plants, while the treatments with bio-fertilizer increased these parameters. The cadmium accumulated in the roots, the transport to the shoots was low. We came to the conclusion, that –because of the different nutrient-uptake systemthe sunflower took up more cadmium. Using bacterium containing bio-fertilizer the toxic effect of cadmium was moderated. By our experimental results the use of Phylazonit is offered under contaminated conditions.

  • Studies of the influences of different N fertilizers and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on the nutrient content of soil
    134-140
    Views:
    62

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizers in combination with bacterial fertilizer on
    nutrient uptake of horseradish and plant available nutrients of the soil. Three different N fertilizers, ammonium-nitrate, urea and calciumnitrate
    (116 kg ha-1 N) in combination with Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer (2 kg ha-1) were applied as treatments in a randomized
    complete block design in three replications. In this paper we presented the results of soil measurements. The soil of the experimental area
    was chernozem with medium sufficiency level of N and P and poor level of K.
    Our main results:
    The amount of 0.01M CaCl2 soluble inorganic nitrogen fractions, NO3
    --N and NH4
    +-N and also the quantity of soluble organic-N were
    almost the same in the soil. N fertilizers significantly increased all the soluble N fractions. The amount of NO3
    --N increased to the greatest
    extent and the increase of organic N was the slightest. We measured the largest CaCl2 soluble NO3
    - -N and total-N contents in the plots
    treated with ammonium-nitrate, the largest NH4
    +-N in the plots treated with calcium-nitrate and the largest organic-N fraction in plots
    treated with urea.
    Bacterial inoculation also increased both soluble inorganic nitrogen forms and also total-N content of soil compared to the control. In
    the case of combined (artificial and bacterial fertilizer) treatments we measured lower NO3
    --N, organic-N and total-N compared to the
    values of plots having only nitrogen fertilizer treatments. On the contrary in the plots with combined treatments the CaCl2 soluble NH4
    +-N
    content of soil in more cases were higher than that of values with artificial fertilizer treatment.
    As a function of calcium-nitrate application increased AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values were measured compared to control. Microbion
    UNC supplement of calcium nitrate yielded also increase in AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values, till then supplement of ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
    yielded a decrease in these values compared to the control.
    All nitrogen fertilizers resulted in a significant decrease in AL-Mg content of soil compared to the control. Nevertheless bacterial
    fertilizer increased AL-Mg values in any cases.

  • Examination of Zn deficiency on some physiological parameters in case of maize and cucumber seedlings
    5-9
    Views:
    84

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient needed not only for people, but also crops. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in
    Zn, leading to poor crop yields. In fact, one-third (33%) of the world's population is at risk of Zn deficiency in rates, ranging from 4% to
    73% depending on the given country. Zn deficiency in agricultural soils is also a major global problem affecting both crop yield and quality.
    The Zn contents of soils in Hungary are medium or rather small. Generally, the rate of Zn deficiency is higher on sand, sandy loam or soil
    types of large organic matter contents. High pH and calcium carbonate contents are the main reasons for the low availability of Zn for
    plants (Karimian and Moafpouryan, 1999). It has been reported that the high-concentration application of phosphate fertilisers reduces Zn
    availability (Khosgoftarmanesh et al., 2006). Areas with Zn deficiency are particularly extensive in Békés, Fejér and Tolna County in
    Hungary, yet these areas feature topsoils of high organic matter contents. Usually, Zn is absorbed strongly in the upper part the soil, and it
    has been observed that the uptakeable Zn contents of soil are lower than 1.4 mg kg-1.
    Maize is one of the most important crops in Hungary, grown in the largest areas, and belongs to the most sensitive cultures to Zn
    deficiency. Zn deficiency can causes serious damage in yield (as large as 80 %), especially in case of maize. On the other hand, Zn
    deficiency can also cause serious reduction in the yields of dicots. One of the most important vegetables of canning industry is cucumber,
    which is grown all over the world.
    In this study, the effects of Zn deficiency have investigated on the growth of shoots and roots, relative and absolute chlorophyll contents,
    fresh and dry matter accumulation, total root and shoot lengths, the leaf number and leaf area of test plants in laboratory. Experimental
    plants used have been maize (Zea mays L. cv. Reseda sc.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delicatess). A monocot and dicot plant have
    chosen a to investigate the effects of Zn deficiency, because they have different nutrient uptake mechanism.
    It has been observed that the unfavourable effects of Zn deficiency have caused damage in some physiological parameters, and
    significantly reduced the growth, chlorophyll contents of monocots and dicots alike.

  • The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield
    83-86
    Views:
    180

    The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

    The aim of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

    The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

    Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

    Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

  • The impact of applying foliar fertilizers on the health condition of maize
    105-109
    Views:
    169

     

    The nutrient supply of plants is becoming more important in plant protection since the appropriate condition of plants can be ensured by optimal and satisfactory nutrient supply to avoid nutritional deficiency diseases. Due to the extreme weather conditions, plants are forced to face several stress factors, which leads to deterioration of the plant health. The increasing occurrence of droughts poses threat to nutrient uptake through the roots since all the nutrients can be accessible to the plants only if they are in dissolved form in the soil – which is not possible in the absence of water. Therefore, the importance of foliar fertilizer is becoming a more and more significant part of the nutrient supply, because with the help of this technology the development of any nutrient deficiency can be prevented.

    In this experiment, we focused on the efficiency of two different foliar fertilizers on maize.  Foliar fertilizers were applied two times, once in the stage with 8 leaves and tasseling phenophase of the maize. To verify the efficiency of the foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content of untreated and treated plant’s leaves was measured after each application. Moreover, the length and diameter of maize cobs, thousand kernel weight, protein, oil and starch content were also measured, and the results were compared to the untreated (control) ones. According to the results, in all aspects significant differences were observed and due to the laboratory analysis of leaves, in the case of magnesium and zinc supply the foliar fertilizers were able to prevent the development of nutrient deficiency.

  • Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
    53-56
    Views:
    114

    Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

    The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

    We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

  • Nitrogen Content of Hungarian Soils and Nitrogen Fertilization
    51-61
    Views:
    91

    For crop production and agricultural production, the most important natural resource is the soil that can optionally renew. Paralelly with this, soil plays a major role in the geological and biological cycle of elements. As a result of the big (geological) and small (biological) element cycles, the elements and combines neccessary for organisms can accumulate in the soil creating suitable living conditions for plants and other organisms. Soil is a heterogenous system both horizontally and vertically, and soil constituents show great variety in all the three dimensions, in addition, most of the parameters can also change between two examination dates. When talking about the factors influencing plant production, one should take into account this variation and heterogenity in time and space. When making fertilization recommendations, these factors should all be considered. In any consultation system, most of the mistakes and errors made are due to the unsatisfying soil testing and the negligence of soil heterogenity. In the practice of fertilization the biggest mistake is the improper soil sampling, then comes the methodical mistake of soil testing, which is followed by the inaccuracy of instrumental analysis and the subjectivity of result evaluation, but the latter two are negligible compared to the others. Under normal, i.e. production conditions, the quantity and distribution of nutrients in the soil are greatly dependent upon the applied technology, the amount and form of the applied natural and artificial fertilizers and the quality of fertilization.
    Fertilization recommendations are needed because in the layer which is accessible for plant roots only a part of the nutrient content is available for plants in a specific production cycle. An illustration of this is that though the upper 1 m layer of an average chernozem soil contains more than 5000 kg N, 12000 kg K2O and 1500 kg P2O5 (form of expression mostly used in Hungary), the application of fertilizer doses which are just fractions of these quantities is essential. This is due to the fact that the available amount of the total nutrient content depends from the quality of soil, the environmental factors (the physical and chemical qualities of the soil) and the specific nutrient’s qualities (solubility, adsorption). Knowledge of these processes and the examination of the factors influencing the actual nutrient content are vital for working out a fertilization practice, which does not put more strain on the environment than neccessary.

    All of the above mentioned should be considered when applying inputs in the fields. In a well-functioning practice that considers the economic and environmental conditions (unfortunately the present production and economic conditions do not enable an appropriate level and degree), three nutrients are supplemented generally (and were supplemented in the last decades): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
    Studying the nutrient balance of the Hungarian field production’s last hundred years, we can draw some interesting conclusions.
    The nutrient balance became positive for nitrogen and potassium in the second half of the 1960’s, while for phosphorus it was positive from the first half of the 1960’s and this period lasted until the end of the 1980’s.
    Neither before the 1960’s, nor since the 1990’s has the amount of nutrients supplemented in a specific year reached the amount of the nutrient uptake of the same year.

  • Practical experiences of a designing and operating a pilot aquaponic system
    27-32
    Views:
    247

    Aquaponics is the combination of fish farming (aquaculture) and the soilless cultivation of plants (hydroponics). The aquaponics system is an artificial, recirculating ecosystem, in which bacterial processes convert the waste materials in the water used for fish rearing into plant nutrients, and therefore with the generated heat it is suitable for culturing economically valuable plants, and thus it mitigates the nutrient laden and quantity of the intensive fish producing systems’ effluent water.

    The primary goal of our 12 separate unit’s aquaponics system was to gain experience. We would like to find the right plant species, which are fit for that medium, and their crop can be sold. Besides the plants, our attention focused on the fish. Two fish species were included in the experiments, the common carp and barramundi. It was difficult to create them a perfect living space, besides a constantly changing conditions temperature. Apart the above mentioned we had a problem with the number of individuals per tank, the deformity of the fish body and the too high volume of pH (we registered continuous values above 8.4). We get by carps 4.7 grams of weight gain during 15 weeks, because of the bad conditions.

    The main problems at the plants are caused by aphesis and protection against sunburn. Even so we have got the multiples of field yields for each plant species. At salad has grown twice of field yields, tomatoes one and half, kohlrabi than 3.5 times more. The causes of multiple yields are the continuous balanced water and the nutrient uptake of plants. Each plant species fit for cultivating in aquaponics and their crops are delicious, chemical -free, safe and marketable. The plants should be more concentrated. After the experiment, it has been determinated that the carp is suitable for aquaponics, but greater weight gain could be achieved with optimal selection of size of rearing units.

  • Nutrient Uptake of Miscanthus in vitro Cultures
    23-24
    Views:
    75

    The large biomass production and the low necessary input fertilizer make Miscanthus an interesting, potential non-food crop with broad applications, e.g. for fuel and energy, for thatching, fiber production, for the paper and car industries, as well as for ethanol production.
    Axillary buds of Miscanthus x giganteus were placed on a shoot inducing nutrient solution (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,3 mg l-1 6-Benzylaminopurin. After 40 days of culturing, the axillary buds produced three times more shoots than could normally be harvested. The nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) was measured several times during culturing. The results showed that, after 35 days, nitrogen and phosphate were nearly completely taken up. From that time, shoot growth was not observed.
    After shoot propagation, the plants were transfered into a nutrient solution for root formation (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,5 mg l-1 Indole- 3-Butyric acid, and could be potted in soil after about 14 days.

  • Effect of different sources and doses of sulphur on yield, nutrient content and uptake by spring wheat
    109-115
    Views:
    141

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two sulphur forms (sulphate and tiosulphate) in combination with three different N:S ratios on the yield of spring wheat and total N- and S-content and uptake by the aboveground biomass on chernozem and sandy soil. In the greenhouse experiment, the effects of two sulphur forms were compared: sulphate (SO42-) and thiosulphate (S2O32-). The sulphate was applied as potassium-sulphate (K2SO4) and thiosulphate as ammonium-thiosulphate ((NH4)2S2O3). Increasing doses of both sulphur forms (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) were used with the same nitrogen dose (120 kg N ha-1) which caused three different N:S ratios background (1:0.2, 1:0.5, 1:1). Nitrogen was supplied in the form of monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), ammonium-nitrate and ammonium-thiosulphate. Plant samples were taken in three different development stages of spring wheat based on the BBCH scale: at the stage of BBCH 30–32 (stem elongation), BBCH 65–69 (flowering) and BBCH 89 (ripening). The total nitrogen and total sulphur content of plant at different development stages and also wheat grain were measured by Elementar Vario EL type CNS analyser. The nutrient uptake by plant and grain was calculated from the yield of spring wheat and the N and S content of plant.  The grain yield on chernozem soil ranged between 6.31 and 12.13 g/pot. All fertilised treatments significantly increased the grain yield compared to the control. The highest yield was obtained in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1in sulphate form. The grain yield on sandy soil varied from 2.53 to 6.62 g/pot. The fertilised treatments significantly enhanced the yield compared to the control. The highest yield was observed in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1 in thiosulphate form. On chernozem soil the increasing doses of sulphur (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) with the same N dose (120 kg N ha-1) increased the N-content of spring wheat at all development stages and in the grain. The treatments with different sulphur sources did not cause further changes in the N-content. On sandy soil in the most cases the N-content did not change significantly as a result of increasing sulphur doses. The treatments with sulphate form basically resulted higher nitrogen-content than treatments with thiosulphate form. The treatments with increasing sulphur doses resulted higher S-content on both of chernozem and sandy soil in the case of all development stage. Comparing the effect of the applied sulphur sources on the S-content it can be stated that at the stage of BBCH 30–31 and 65–69 the treatments with sulphate form resulted higher sulphur-content. At the stage of BBCH 89 there was no significant differences in S-content of grain as a result of different sulphur-sources.

  • Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
    27-31
    Views:
    165

    The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

    Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

    In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

  • Az NPK-trágyázás hatása a kukorica tápelemfelvételének dinamikájára, öntözött és nem öntözött viszonyok között
    23-27
    Views:
    162

    The effect of NPK-fertilization on the dynamics of nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Clarica) was examined on chernozem soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in a field experiment.
    The following results were made:
    • the element concentrations in the plant decreased over time,
    • there is no difference between the dynamics of nutrients on irrigated and non-irrigated sites because rainfall was satisfactory for plants in vegetation period,
    • the N doses not only significantly increase the nitrogen content in maize, but also have a noticable effect on Ca and Mg concentrations,
    • because of the acidifying effect of N-fertilizers, increasing the amount of N-fertilizer increased the Mn, Zn, Cu content of the plants,
    • the P doses have a significant effect on the maize P and N content and the Zn concentration of the plant via P-Zn antagonism in the soil,
    • as the high K doses treatments alter the ion ratios in the soil, the Ca, Mg content of the plant decreased.