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Experiences of Waste Management at Agricultural Enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published March 4, 2006
50-55

The general tendency of the last few years has been that besides large agricultural Ltd.’s and firms, smaller agricultural enterprises also have to correspond to stricter environmental regulations.
This process suits the EU’s environmental and waste management regulations. Recently, manure, liquid manure and addle are registered as non h...azardous agricultural waste in waste management in Hungary.
In the case of the amount of these wastes is larger than 200 t/year, one has to make an individual waste management plan.
Accordingly, several small agricultural enterprises have to make individual waste management plants in Hajdú-Bihar County.
This article is based on the results of these companies experiences.

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The R&D and innovation activity of agribusiness enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published May 6, 2013
67-71

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.

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Stability and development of Transdanubian agricultural enterprises
Published June 1, 2021
77-82

Personal fulfilment, financial security, flexibility, relationships, information, rules - these are all hallmarks of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, one more important factor should be added to the list, which enables satisfaction resulting from reliable income and self-fulfillment: this is openness. An open mind to changes, to novelties, an...d to the workforce is necessary. The central question of the present research is how to effectively develop Hungarian small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, especially in the Transdanubian region, by utilizing these factors. In addition to production, institutional and price risks, agricultural enterprises, like other sectors, are also affected by massive labour shortages and resource-intensive development objectives. In the research, primary agricultural producers, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed through questionnaire in the second and third quarters of 2019. Using the snowball method, both the development opportunities and the risks were mapped in this sector, mostly among growers. The research results show that there is a correlation between satisfaction and development and favorable workplace relationships. These correlations were presented by demonstrating the relationship between technological development, income satisfaction, stable job creation, and the need to try new developments. However, there seems to be an invisible boundary to development in the examined field, which may stem from uncertainty, and yet, it is important to maintain development and learning activity so that the right knowledge and know-how is available to the business when needed. Since the results show that there is a lack of openness to new technologies among the farmers in the studied region, and this may pose a problem in the future in terms of meeting the expectations of precision farming, it is recommended to focus on innovation in the agricultural sector in Hungary.

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The production and financial achievement of the agricultural co-operatives in 2002-2007
Published May 2, 2012
21-28

The aim of the study was the examination of the achievement of the Hungarian agricultural enterprises – special regard to the agricultural co-operatives – based on the aggregated database of Hungarian Tax and Financial Control Administration (APEH), from the database of the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics. From the methodologic...al aspect plain statistical devices were used, indicators for corporate analyses were
calculated and analyzed for the time series. One important conclusion is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that over the general examination of economic actors on an aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single enterprises forms would be needed. In the case of the co-operatives the separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the new type co-operatives would be necessary

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Az elmúlt tíz év változásainak vezetői értékelése különböző szervezeti formában működő vállalatoknál
Published March 27, 2002
82-86

revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and... they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
The methods and means of examinations
We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.

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Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
Published November 13, 2012
237-240

Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

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The economic risk analysis in the case of agricultural enterprises
Published March 20, 2013
107-116

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The company’s activity, profitability and growth potential are influenced by risk and uncertainty derived from the economic environment. The principal thing that makes difference between risk and uncertainty is the capacity to be quantified, and then the risk can be measured, whereas uncertainty is not. Specific risk types of agricultural enterprises are on the one hand the economic risk and specific risk arising from the main agricultural activity. The economic risks include financial risk categories like market risk, liquidity risk, credit risk and operational risk. Macroeconomic risk manifest also a significant influence to the company and the importance of taking into account of this, importantly increased in recently years. In present paper, I quantified the total risk of company by using financial and operating leverage indicators. The company’s growth was characterized with internal growth rate and sustainable growth rate. The present research aims to explore risk and growth level of agricultural companies and grouping companies by different characteristics. In present analysis I have used cluster analysis. From the results I can summarize, that the agricultural enterprises growth is made by using internal financing resources and their financial leverage level is lower that operating leverage level.

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Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary
Published May 23, 2006
31-34

The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, ...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

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Income and cash flow in some agricultural enterprises of Hajdu-Bihar county on the basis of data in 1997-98
Published September 7, 2001
95-106

The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production. The available data was classified and averaged on the basis of the form of association.
Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured a profit, closer analysis of their cash flows reveals that, at least in some cases, expense...s were not always coverable, despite income. In all forms of association major emphasis was put on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that later on these investments will result in an increasing income level and profit. The situation is the most advantageous in the case of co-operatives, as the cash flow of the second examined year originated from regular activity could cover the cash flow of investments and financing. In the case of limited liability and shareholder companies the above is not true, but advantageous changes occur there too. Unfortunately, in most cases the role of loans is very important in the operation of the company. As far as favourable aspects are concerned it can be stated that credit repayment covered by the regular activity.

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Analysis of the reasons for the crisis and insolvency of agricultural enterprises
Published June 5, 2009
49-54

The huge insolvency of the enterprise organizations is very adverse for the national economy, the first social and economic task of each country, Hungary as well, should be the maintenance
of the efficient and viable organizations. The liquidation of the agricultural organizations has much more economic and social effects. As a result of my ...researches I declared that most of the
time the causes, which led to the liquidation of agricultural organizations, are independent from the organisation and are external. The common feature of external causes are that they are
not influenced by the organisations, so they cannot be avoided. So the adaptation to the external causes has huge importance in the battle of avoidance of insolvency.

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Special Investment Support Under the Agricultural Reorganisation Programme 1995-2000
Published September 5, 2002
64-73

Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.

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Az észak-alföldi mezőgazdasági vállalkozások pénzügyi helyzetének elemzése 1997-1999-es adatok alapján
Published March 27, 2002
72-76

The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production.
We analysed the financial situation of some agricultural companies from Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar counties. We got the data from the Department of Justice from reports made between 1997-1999. The available data was classifie...d and averaged by counties.
Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured profit, closer analyses of their cash flows reveal that, at least in some cases, expenses were not always coverable, despite income. Both counties, major emphasis was on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that these investments will later result in an increasing income level and profit.
Altogether we cannot say which county enjoys a better situation, and what the reasons for the differences are. Further data collection and analyses are needed to find the answers.

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Distribution of family farms according to estate size and land usage in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published July 16, 2007
130-136

In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.

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Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
Published September 14, 2005
21-27

The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
in the North Great Plain Region and – in a w...ider sense – in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesis
of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.

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A gombatermesztés szerepe az átalakuló magyar mezőgazdaságban
Published March 27, 2002
15-22

The structure of Hungarian agriculture should be changed before the EU accession. The new structure should fulfill EU requirements and also produce competitive products. Unconventional products (mushroom, fish, honey etc.) have a lot of advantages: they can be produced on small farms, their trade is mainly free of regulation and their markets a...re almost unlimited. This paper deals with one of these alternative agricultural enterprises, namely mushroom production. Hungarian mushroom production – in spite of difficulties – has witnessed remarkable expansion: it has increased its production by fourfold and its export by fivefold in less than ten years. The low level of wages gives Hungary significant advantage over its competitors. If we could ensure the appropriate infrastructure (technical advice, bank loans, etc.) the mushroom industry would become one of the most profitable sectors of Hungarian agriculture.

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Accounting Information Systems in the Decisions Support of Enterprises
Published May 11, 2003
280-286

In the information society we are living in the whirl of information but this doesn’t mean that we are in full possession of information for our present decisions. We gain the information at time in insufficiently detailed another time in too detailed form, and the information were gained from different sources may be contradictory. The actor...s of market recognize the power of information but – as in the case of other-type resource utilization – the preparation of this information-power needs more or less investment. Greater part of the small and medium-size agricultural enterprises haven’t tool at all to gain the economical information. After the EU-connection if one of these enterprises will apply for financial support it needs supply continuous and detailed data about own activity for European Community. The main question that can exist exact data-supply without appropriate computerized background. On the other hand if an enterprise has information system it will have the market-goods on the others which don’t have such an investment.

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Financial Analysis of Agricultural Enterprises’ Economic Results
Published May 11, 2003
270-279

The main objective of this paper is to give an overview about the economic results and financial status of agricultural enterprises in Hajdu-Bihar Count, as well as, froa methodology viewpoint,find the place of the used indexes in the system of effectivity indexes in farm management . From the complex database describing the enterprises, the fi...gures on the balance sheets and profit and loss accounts were used and analysed. As a result of the analysis the below statements can be made:
The owner’s equity ratio within the total equity is very different in corporations and in individual farms. The lower values in case of corporations show their indebtedness. At the same time, the figures indicate that it is more difficult for individual farms to receive loans.
The average of dynamic indebtedness indexes, in case of individuals are closer to 0 which generally derives from the low level of liabilities. The same indexes of corporations o the other hand show significant indebtedness. The figures indicate that the yearly cash flow can hardly cover the net liabilities.
The profitability proportional to the production value is generally low, mostly negative, independent from size and organisational form.
As a summary, it can be said, that individual as well as corporate farms suffer financing problems, the nature of these problems is different in the two groups. On the on hand, the operation and development of the individual, mostly the smaller, farms are hindered by the difficulties of acquiring external capital. On the other hand, the results of corporate, mostly the cooperative, farms is impeded by the burdens of liabilities accumulated in previous years.

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Cross-Sectional Examination of Agricultural Firms in Relation to the Leaders’ Attitude
Published May 11, 2003
261-269

As a PhD student at the Management Department of Debrecen University my project was to find examine circumstances of agricultural business entities in connection with structural, social and economic changes. This topic is integral part of the research program „Functional Study of Business-Management”, specified the topic „Structural Manag...ement Researches”.
My setting of objectives were to find any connection between changes and attitude of leaders. I tried to explore the direction, tightness and tendencies of these relations, to choose some special management-method, which ones are much more succesfull than the other ones during the change-managing process. The base of my experiences are the results of special questionnaires, which were sent to several member of different type of enterprises relating to agricultural activity.

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Analysis of human factors in wiev of safety at some agricultural companies in Hajdú-Bihar county
Published June 5, 2009
109-115

The author examined the human social influence factors of the occupational safety and health and number of workers at thirteen different agricultural firms. He’d measured at these enterprises the demographic characteristics and the risk sensibility of farmlabourers at scopes of activities and some related occupational safety and health attitu...des from the psychosocial factors. He used questionnaire and personal guided interviews and methodical examinations. He used seven graded Likert-scale (-3...0...+3) (Malhotra, 2005) for qualification of answers. He established that selection by the leaders don’t prefer the special skills. He stated that the examined farm-labourers have got a low risk sensibility, but the statistics of the accidents not certifies it. With the occupational safety and health related attitudes influence the relation to the occupational safety and health, and to comply with OSH rules. It was established that the rate of quasi-accidents is relative high at agricultural workers.

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The Connection of Capital Leverage and Profitability by the Corporate Agriculture Enterprises
Published June 5, 2009
35-39

The analysis of capital system of agricultural corporations is a key issue of economics and the effect of it's fluctuation can be observed on several fields of the life of corporations.It influences
for example the assets-, financial- and income situation of the enterprises.The aim of this study is to analyse the connection between capital s...tructure and profitability in order to reveal such
a ratio for the capital leverage and liabilities, by which it can say, to that connect the profit or loss. By the analyse get activity- and size specified results.With the empyrical results I determine the quantile point between the profitable or the non profitable operating.

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The role of agriculture in regional development
Published July 24, 2014
25-30

Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of ...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.

Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.

The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.

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The Developmental Possibilities for Methods of Real Estate and Farm Property Evaluation in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
241-247

Different methods for evaluating property have gained greater importance in agriculture since the change of regime. The open market evaluation could be the best method if the agricultural property had significant turnover, which could serve as a reliable comparison. However, there is no notable turnover, and selling is scarce. And, when there i...s some, the sales contracts are not available. On the other hand, the open market evaluation is almost the only one assessing method in Western Europe and in the United States. The matrix comparing market data in my methodological development helps to estimate the effects of the elements which determinate real estate value of farms.
Another method for evaluating farm property is the discounted future earnings. Enterprises are able to produce series of income continuously during their working periods, which can be considered as perpetuity. This is the base of the discounted future earning evaluation. Determination of income generating capacity is not an easy task. It is also difficult to choose the proper rate of capitalization. If this rate is higher than the usual level, the property will be underestimated. If it is lower, the property will be overrated. According to my calculations the profitability of certain farms of animal breeding may be evaluated under different operating conditions. Furthermore, the capitalisation interest rate may be determined in an objective way.
The problem of applying the depreciated replacement cost evaluation method is that there are big deviations among investment costs in tenders of contractors; moreover the estimations of special depreciation forms are rather subjective. One of the process’s greatest difficulties for reliability is that it is doubtful whether depreciated replacement cost could reach the real market value. The utilisation of this method may be spread further in the future by standardising average gross replacement cost of building as well as by measuring depreciation more objectively.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture
Published December 10, 2002
171-181

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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