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Trends in Dry Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Production
Published May 12, 2002

Dry pea is an important, cool-season grain legume, which is grown worldwide on over 6 million hectares. The major producing countries outside Europe are China and Canada, followed by India, Australia, and the United States. France, Canada and Australia produce over 2 million hectares and are major exporters of peas. During the 1980’s, in deve...loped countries of the European Union, pea production rose yearly by 6-10%, which represents a significant increase in both area and yield. Europe accounts for 50-75% of world pea production. In the 1990’s, the European Union produced 4-5 million tonnes of dry pea, of which 3-4 million tonnes were used for feed and 1 million tonnes for export. At the end of the 20th century, the growth in production was low, mainly because of the absence of support measures, and the better returns offered by other crops. In the countries of the former Soviet Union, dry pea was primarily used as feed and pea production dropped, due to a trend in livestock raising.
Food consumption of dry pea is concentrated in developing countries, where grain legumes represent a useful complement to cereal-based diets as a relatively inexpensive source of high quality protein. As a result, human consumption of grain legumes fell from 2,2 kg/capita in 1961 to 0,5 kg/capita in 1999. The importance of grain legumes in food protein supply decreased, while that of cereal products increased. Shortage of grain legumes has adverse effects on the nutritional standard of poor people in developing countries.
World dry pea production reached 16,7 million tonnes in 1990, with 3,7 million tonnes used as food, 11,4 million tonnes used as feed, and 1,0 million tonnes used as seed. Dry pea production was 10,9 million tonnes in 1999, and 3,5, 5,8 and 0,8 million tonnes was used as food, feed and seed, respectively. In the coming decades, world grain legume production and utilization as feed are expected to expand at a slower rate than in the 1980’s. Most of the increase is expected to occur in Eastern European countries, Canada and Australia, where production is anticipated to grow at 2% annually. The projection for the new millennium was derived from adjusted trends in area and yield over the period 1961-2000, based on FAO statistical data.

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The Evaluation of Grazed Grasslands on the Hortobágy
Published May 11, 2003

The sward composition of different grasslands on Puszta Hortobágy has been developed according to prevailing abiotic and biotic factors. The abiotic conditions have been more or less constans for long periods of time, and the abiotic factors are determined by ecological conditions (climate, soil, topography). Among biotic factors grazing of he...rbivores was important in the development of Hortobágy grasslands for centuries (Sipos and Varga, 1993). Result of three-year investigations on the sward composition of grasslands utilised in different ways are presented. Data on ground cover, number of plant species, representation of different plant groups (grasses, sedge and bent-grass, herbs, legumes) and weeds are reported from six different grazed grassland types from Puszta Hortobágy.
In 1999-2001 a sward composition survey was conducted. Sample areas of 2x2 m2 were marked out in three replicates: on temporarily waterlogged grassland grazed by cattle (A), on dry grassland grazed by cattle (B), on dry grassland grazed by sheep (C), on dry grassland grazed by buffaloes (D), on dry grassland grazed by buffaloes and geese (E), on dry grassland cut for hay in May then grazed by geese (F). On the sample areas sward composition of grasslands was estimated according to Balázs (1949).
The average ground cover of different grasslands ranged between 60 and 100% (Table 2). The lowest value was found for grasslands C and E, which are grazed by sheep (C) and buffaloes and geese alternately (E). In these grasslands were some open spaces, on the other grasslands completely closed swards covers were observed.
The species diversity of these natural grasslands are high (Table 2). The grassland F, which were cut for hay in May had the lowest diversity (17-21). The highest number of species was found on grassland A and B (32-51), on other grazed grasslands (C, D, E) had 29-48 species.
The different plant groups had different representation in the total ground cover (Table 3). The number of herbs was always higher then that of grasses, but the cover of herbs was lower then that of grasses. The legumes and the sedge and bent grasses were present in high abundance in grassland A, but in the other grasslands were not.
The composition of herbs should be a warning for future utilisation systems on some grasslands of Hortobágy. Some species of herbs, e.g. Achillea millefolium, Artemisia vulgaris, Carduus acanthoides, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium vulgare Eryngium campestre, Galium mollugo, Galium verum, Ononis spinosa, Rumex crispus, Verbascum phlomoideus, Phragmites australis can be invasive on short grasslands.

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The Effect of Utilization Systems on the Sward Composition, Yield and Sheep Carrying Capacity of Extensive Grasslands
Published May 11, 2003

We analysed the effect of the sheep grazing, the grass cutting and mixed utilization methods on plant composition, yield and live-stock keeping capacity of extensive Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae grassland in the 1996-2000 research period. Analysing the extensive utilizations effects on chanching of the plant composition of extensive grasslan...d established that due to the cutting utilization method the area covering rates of gramineous and usefull weeds were the highest while the grazing utilization-method caused the briggest area covering rate for legumes and unusefull weeds. Analysing the utilized fibrin-fodder yield established that the single utilization methods could not produce the maximum yield and live-stock keeping capacity on the treathea grassland type. Because of things mentioned above we must use the mixed utilization methods to save the maximum phytomass.

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Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
Published October 11, 2006

The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

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The effect of grazing of various cattle breeds on botanical composition of low-lying pasture in Hortobágy
Published August 29, 2017

Coenological surveys were conducted in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám-puszta) in May 2015 and 2016. During the tests,a total of 40 permanent plots were analyzed on grasslands grazed by extensive cattle (Hungarian Grey) and mixed genotype intensive cattle. The presence of plant species, percentages of... total coverage of species and vegetation cover were recorded. Two habitat types were chosen according to their moisture content: wet salt marsh meadow (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier salt meadows (Beckmannion eruciformis).

We compared the impact of increased number of animals (2016 years) and the low number of animals (2015 years, initial state) and the grazing exclusion on vegetations.
We tested: (i) what is the impact of grazing on the vegetation, (ii) how do species composition and vegetation charachteristics differ in the two habitat types (iii) and is there a difference in the impact of different cattle breeds (Hungarian gray, intensive beef cattle) grazing on the grasslands species composition? During the investigation we found, (i) that the greatest number of species was recorded in 2015, on the area that received moderate to intensive grazing (14.3 species per m2). Somewhat the number of species was reduced in 2016 due to more intensive grazing. The control group had the lowest number of species (11.7 species per m2). The undergrass and legumes cover significantly increased on intensive grazed lands. (ii) Our results indicate that the effects of different grazing differ in the two studied habitat types. On the drier grasslands greater number of species were found (16.2 species per m2), oppositely to the wet grassland (11.2 species per m2). The cover of the undergrasses was higher in the drier habitat than in the wet. (iii) The extensive beef cattle left a bigger number of species (16 species per m2) than the intensive beef cattle (11.4 species per m2). The grass cover was more intense on areas grazed by intensive cattle. The absolute and potential weeds cover showed a higher value on areas grazed by Hungarian Grey. Our two-year results suggest that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds can be a proper tool for the conservation management of alkali grasslands.

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