Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria,
widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions. Various flours of the wheat pattern sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment.
In producing this pattern we used FQC109 type of mill. There were 5 different corn sizes of 250-200; 200-160; 160-125; 125-100; <100 μms used in the partition of the fractions. The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.
As for the historic record of the problem related to the study of flat plates, the first results were out for publishing at the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century, having Chladni E, Strehlke, Konig, R, Tanaka S, Rayleigh L, Ritz W and later on Gontkevich V, Timoshenko S, Leissa as pioneers. Each of the above mentioned au...thors have had significant contributions regarding the development of methods in order to solve the plates and establish some rigurous solutions of their differential equations of equilibrium.
The making of constructions, machines and different high-perfomance appliances, whose functioning should take place in safety conditions, have required theoretical studies of rich complexity, as well as practical experiments, within which the problem of their free and forced vibrations represent an important category in the respective theme of research.
The cost of products changes not only seasonally in relation to time, but also follows a hectic motion. It is necessary for the farmers to calculate in advance the size of the future income, which is one of the basic conditions of the economical production. Many authors have examined the change of the prices but since the tendency of the change... of the prices can be only rarely observed purely by itself, therefore it is difficult to separate it. During my research I examined how the monthly prices of corn and the monthly buying prices of pigs for slaughter have changed since 1991 and how much their future value will be. I examined how much is the α factor wich gives the minimal residual variation in case of the Brownian dual exponential smoothing and the corrected dual exponential smoothing and how will the future (2002) prices, which were in this way calculated, change compared to their real market prices.
In this study we presented the results of a survey research, which was performed during 2015 at 34 sewage treatment works, operating in Észak-alföld region (Hungary). The survey focused on applied mechanical equipment and works of art of the sewage treatment establishments.
The results of the survey showed that the majority of the exa...mined sites (approx 65%) are working with capacity utilization of 50–100%,merely the 12% of plants was overload. It was found analyzing of specific energy consumption of the sites that the largest value (1.1 kWh per m3) was at the plants with smaller capacity (0–1000 m3 per day). It was clear during the questionnaire processing of the survey that almost all of the works applied activated sludge for sewage treatment The sludge treatment of the sewage plants is conducted by two methods; aerobic- and mixed (anaerobic and aerobic) sludge stabilization. We suggest for the plants with small capacity to use deep aerators, since anachronistic method used the at 3% of the settlements.
Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour
The viewpoint of the recent cryopreservation techniques (CT) suggests the use of a reduced volume of cryopreservation solution, high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling and warming rates help to reduce cryo-injury and maximize the viability of the preserved animal genetic resources (AnGR). The CT had now become widely a...ccepted as one of the best methods of choice for the ex-situ conservation of AnGR due to its high success rate recorded and no-invasive nature as compared to the conventional slow rate freezing (CSRF). Rapid advances and wide acceptability of the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART’s) particularly artificial insemination (AI) in animal breeding had resulted in a greater loss of a large number of good quality genes in virtually almost all the native breeds of animals across the globe. Small ruminant (SR) animals are not an exception in such present predicaments situation of erosion and dilution of the valuable AnGR among the native breeds. As a result of this, 148 and 16 breeds of sheep and goats respectively have already become extinct in Europe and the Caucasus. In view of the aforementioned situation, the present review aimed at exploring some of the current states of development, roles played and potentials of CT in the conservation of SR genes and genome for the immediate and future breeding purposes for sustainable development. It basically covers; animal genetic resource, the need to conserve AnGR, tools for ex situ in vitro conservation of AnGR and recent developments in breeding and cryopreservation of SR AnGR.
Cryopreservation is playing a pivotal role in ex-situ gene conservation of AnGR. Decline in genetic diversity among SR breed population was high in Europe and the Caucasus. There is therefore, need for improvent on current stringent measures on conservation of AnGR in this region of the world.
Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally wit...h the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.
management, although there are many chiseled methodologies plenty of professional literature.
The problem is more complex in strategic planning of regional communities – societies – of different range. These societies are very diverse, and accordingly the strategic goal setting can, and has to be very different than the strategic g
The group of methods for morphologic and structural analysis and the computer based MACTOR program could be used.
The output data are presented in a large number of matrixes, vectors, graphs and histogram’s, which describe very fair the possible scenarios for preparation and decision making about
Isolation of ripening- and tissue-specific promoters has become a very important subject of the genetic regulation and plant physiology research in recent years. It could be possible to reveal the regulation of gene expression, and it may be a very useful approach in the biotechnology. In our work, we have isolated promoter regions of genes exh...ibiting ripening- and tissuespecific expression in our previous experiments, and the data were
characterized by bioinformatic methods. In the sequence of the ripening-specific Spatula and ACC-oxidase promoters (ACCoxidase is one of the key-enzymes of ethylene biosynthesis, directly related to the process of ripening); we could identify auxin- and ethylene-related cis-regulatory elements. This suggests that there is an interaction between ripening and ethylene-synthesis, in case of non-climacteric strawberry, too. We investigated the promoter regions of three green receptacle-specific genes (putative nitrilaselike protein, Ring transcription factor and an aquaporin protein)
and we could identify several regulatory elements, which refer to hormonal regulation. Additionally, we could find several cisacting elements which associated with stress-responsiveness and endospermium-specific expression.
Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<...br>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.
The Hungarian sheep sector has become a one-market sector, almost the whole amount of slaughter lamb went to Italy, which increased its defenselessness. In addition to the sole Italian market showing a permanent demand for Hungarian lambs, it would worth to exploit possibilities in other European markets considering the seasonal differences in...Italian prices. Such markets can be the Spanish and Greek for ”light” and the French, German and English markets for ”heavy” lambs. Both the Italian and Hungarian prices have three major periods: Easter, Ferragusto and Christmas. Due to the changes in the prices, the producers often suffer great losses, therefore, the temporal adaptation of production, market research, technological and development activities need to be improved. It is important that the living of Hungarian sheep breeders should not be dependent solely upon the Italian market, distribution of products should be ensured in other markets too, so that the safety of sales be increased and higher prices and higher income could be achieved. The European lamb prices are characterized by large seasonal fluctuation and the degree and timing of changes are different in the different countries. Study of the literature and the results obtained in my study on lamb sales called for an analysis and study of the possibilities of price forecasting. In my study, I performed a forecasting of lamb prices in Hungary and Italy for the period between 1996 and 2006 based on the data of the European Committee. Among the forecasting methods, seasonal decomposition and SARIMA models are the most precise, producers can achieve a better market position by using these in the practice.
In the last decade, the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedure was tested as a multi-nutrient extractant. In 1995-97, international joint research activities were carried out within the COPERNICUS project. Detailed calibration of conventional and the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedures for pH, Mg and K were published.
Relatively poor correlations were found between amounts of P extracted by conventional and CaCl2 soil test methods and, therefore, P limit values could not be calculated directly. To characterise the soil P supply at different sites, the CaCl2 desorbed P and the adsorbed P in a modified Baker Soil Test were also applied.
Soil test results of Hungarian long-term fertiliser experiments and recommended CaCl2-P limit values, calculated on yield effects and soil characteristics, are discussed.
Several approaches are used to define the development and disparities of settlements. The investigation of four settlements in the County of Hajdú-Bihar, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek, suggests that previous methods using few indicators are not suitable enough to measure economic, social and ecological development....My starting point was the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO). I examined the economic, ecological and social development of the communities by separating the 19 indicators and determined that complex indexes or indicators hide the real consideration of the main functions of rural development and opportunities for comparison in a community level. Furthermore, I established that the 19 indicators were not enough to analyse the situation, in this way I raised the number of indicators. I used more indicators, altogether 116 ones, than the previous research. I handled these indicators from economic, ecological and social aspects and carried out a method development. While only Egyek and Tiszacsege were considered to be backward according to the complex index of the HCSO, even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from economic and social aspects on the basis of my calculations. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not suitable for establishing decisions objectively. New developmental ranges evolved. Using this method this method, determining development may be more realistic and may contribute to strengthening decisions in rural development and help in spreading financial subsidies.
Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UNO Congress domestic animals belong also officially to the genetic diversity of the world. Non commercial domestic animal breeds should be maintained for many cultural and technical reasons. Conservation and preservation of living beings is nowadays in the programme of many regional, national and international org...anizations.
The preservation of domestic animals is possible in situ (at the original place and conditions) and ex situ (by cryogenic methods).
There are three era in the history of preservation of domestic animals: the epoch of spontaneous maintenance, the period of sporadic national activities and the era of international programme.
Some of the questions to be solved by scientific research: the principles of selection of the candidate populations for maintenance, the different degrees of endangeredness, the necessary population size to be subsidized, the problem of inbreeding, the best mating systems etc.
In Hungary the maintenance of endangered domestic animal breeds is based upon the low.
The following breeds are on the list of protected breeds:
− the Hungarian Grey cattle,
− the Lipizzan, Shagya, Nonius, Gidran, Furioso,Kisbér Halfbred, Murinsulaner and Hucul horses,
− the Racka, Tsigai and Cikta sheep,
− the Mangalitsa pig,
− the Hungarian yellow, white, speckled and the Transsylvanian naked necked hen,
− the Bronze Turkey,
− the Frizzle Feathered goose.
Hopefully in the near future the breeders of traditional domestic animal breeds will find the possible niches for their special products.
The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method wi
Our reseaches were carried out in apple and pear orchards at Farm and Regional Research Institute in Pallag of the University of Debrecen and Pear Gene Reservoir in Újfehértó. Aim of this study is to interpret and analyse field studies with the aim of a GIS based database. Furthermore, beside field measurements, airborne and field hyperspect...raldatacollection and analysis were also made to facilitate special watermanagement and irrigation related surveys. The integration of unified, geoinformatics systems with high spatial resolution and calibrated airborne hyperspectral data are appropriate tool for decision support systems, which support the continuous update and actualization of the changing cropping data, the analysis of cropping results in a unified complex data system, the acquiring of agro environmental subsidies, the establishment of monitoring system, and the optimization of irrigated fruit production.
Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in the...ir origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.
Distance education, a new teaching method widely-spread in higher education nowadays, requires the extent use of multimedia self-study educational programs besides the traditional means and methods.
Experience shows that besides certain types of software like encyclopedias, dictionaries, language manuals etc. there is an ever growing demand
These programs reflect the teacher’s approach to the subject and contain the relevant, up-to-date information.
Since they are used in a relatively limited circle, usually within a faculty of an institution or within a single subject area, it is crucially important to be able to produce them with as little energy and time as possible.
There is a PhD research program, aiming at creating a flexible multimedia framework, that can be a possible solution to the problem. This framework can be easily filled with different teaching materials compiled by certain teachers without advanced knowledge of informatics. The framework itself is carefully designed and guarantees high quality.
The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.
The aim of this lecture is to observe the status of students with special educational needs (SEN) in Europe and Hungary. The European Union has made tough decisions in financing and educating disabled people, so they can be integrated into the society. According to the European directives, Hungarian jurisdiction and educational politics tend to... follow the pedagogical processes. The relevant juridical and economical laws for SEN students have already been implemented. The number of students with SEN in Europe increases permanently, so it is reasonable to detect their controversy. Despite this fact, differences can be experienced in teaching methods among primary schools, as a result development of SEN students can be different. The aim of this study to compare the motor skills of SEN students in two different primary schools, with different pedagogical program. My research base were the Ferenc Móra primay school and Gyermekház alapítvány primary school in Budapest. My main question was, if a specially developed program targeted SEN students can increase their motor skills. Studying the girls in the 2 age-groups, we have not experienced significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups.
Studying the boys in the 2 age-groups, we have experienced 3 significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups. SEN students, who have been taught in segregated form with the help of ’Alapozó Terápia’ – a special therapy – achieved better motor skills. The study makes recommendation to primary shools how to organise trainigs for these students.
The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) is a bird species that nests sporadically but in colonies, besides larger fishponds and rivers in Hungary. The number of its individuals has been increasing during the last two decades. The species eats solely fish, therefore it can cause serious depredation of the fish stocks in fishponds of intensive system... and after the freezing of the ponds, in larger rivers, which are not yet frozen. The aim of our research was to reveal the damages the birds can cause on the studied areas and the extent of the losses the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co. has to realize.
Our studies were carried out between April 2012 and November 2014. During cleaning, the investigation of the craw contents of the birds and their biometric studies were conducted. The results revealed the diverse food base of the species. In the samples, we have determined 379 fish individuals; in 368 cases, the exact fish species were determined, too. Significant differences were found between the consumed fish species rations of the units (P=0.05% beside). We have also found significant difference in the fish consumptions of adult males and females.
Under the ever harder fish production conditions, the presence and thus the permanent predation of the birds affect the fishermen. In favour of maintaining ecological balance as well as to hold the income of the fish farmers, elaboration of adequate protective and preventive methods will be needed in near future.
To protect crops with chemicals against different microorganisms are very important because residues of toxins could pollute infected grains. This could have the meaning of serious danger to the human and animal health. Similarly important is knowledge of details about presence or absence of any practically applied protective compounds. Experim...ental studies were performed on fungicide treated cereals of the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company, Szeged. Chromatographic methods were used (GC and some GC-MS) to find low level fungicide residues, microwave-assisted isolation of ergosterol was followed by HPLC to detect possible fungal infections and a more detailed microbiological analysis completed the work. Concerning the dry year 2000, no fungicides were found in the samples (by November), the ergosterol level was found to be less than 8 ppm, meaning good quality, coupled with an extremely low level of fungal infections. This was confirmed by direct microbiological testing. In comparison with the microbiological results from 1999, a negative difference can be recognized, most probably due to the rainy weather throughout the year.