The Erdőspuszták sub-region established an Association of Local Municipalities in 1992, 10 settlements of which set up the Erdőspuszták Association in 1995, as a voluntary organization. One third of the settlements in Hajdú-Bihar county are handicapped from an economic or infrastructural point of view.
Tourism has become the most dynami
In my study, the problem is examined from two aspects. First, interviews with mayors are included, consisting of three questions. The leaders of the settlements were first asked about the impact of EU accession, then the most important development plans were mapped and finally the local tourism plans were investigated. Second, I have made an evaluation of each settlement which reviews the infrastructural and environmental conditions, the accommodation and boarding possibilities offered the different tourist attractions and leisure possibilities.
The development of tourism can be an obvious solution to this problem. The toots of tourism entails the creation of job opportunities, the development of infrastructure, the enhancement of living conditions. It has a diverse effect and it contributes to the improvement of living standards in rural areas.
Regarding tourism, it can be stated that each settlement has its own image and value, which the citizens are proud of. It has been realized that collaboration between the settlements could greatly contribute to the development of a tourist programme of several days length, as a result of which the guests would spend more time in the region, which would be beneficial to everybody. My suggestion is that the settlements should work out a plan for the development of tourism jointly, in which they would determine the targets, describe the specific development plans and tasks and elaborate the ideas for the different investments.
In Hungary the operating medium of game management and the guided hunting sector is undergoing such a radical change nowadays that on the one hand it considerably influences the profit-producing ability of the sector, and on the other hand it sets the actors of the industry new challenges and opportunities. If the Hungarian hunting industry, wh...ich has a traditional past, also wishes to preserve its position in this changed business medium, it is essential that the new situation be thoroughly assessed, and the value-oriented marketing attitude be adapted. The phenomena presented in this essay discuss the consequences and causes of the appearance of new service providers regarding the supply side, and the content changes of the consumer group and the modification of earlier consumption preferences and their causes on the demand side. The changing of the two media jointly generate the adaptation of the value-oriented service - marketing concepts, by using which the areas to be developed and deemed as the narrow cross-section of consumer decisions can be determined. After specifying the target group specific marketing properties of the aove-mentioned – prestige – service, such services of high utility content can already be established successfully that can be positioned as a proper alternative for the new consumer group of higher value expectation. On the other hand, the employment and profitability indexes related to this sector may considerably be improved.
Ethology, the research field of animal behaviour, during the past half century developed into an independent science and became more important in recent years as the farming industry has turned toward quality production. Farm animals respond for every environmental factor. Essential to know the answers to avoid unpleasant economic consequences.... Based on the shepherds’ experience, this science has merged with modern technology, constantly expanding and searching new methods. According to the literature the article summarizes the observation methods in cattle grazing. This paper introduces the beginnings and shows the future trends. Finally we share personal experiences as the Hungarian Grey cattle grazing behaviour at conditions of Hortobágy, Hungary.
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
The most important aim of the study is to introduce the theoretical background of my PhD dissertation – agricultural environmental management –, in order to help the scientific foundations for my dissertation, which is in progress. For this reason I will try to clarify and systematize facts found in the special literature according to my ow...n thoughts, from a new aspect.
In my study, I therefore attempt to introduce the theoretical background of sustainable development as pertains to the subsidies of agricultural environmental management (National Agricultural Environmental Management Program, National Regional Development Plan, agricultural environmental management measures). Having clarified the concepts I place sustainable development in the economic theories directed to the treatment of environmental problems, introduce where subsidies are within the environmental regulation implements and I dwell on to the institutional questions in the explanation. I then study questions of sustainable agricultural economics. Accession to the European Union has to be considered as one of the most important concrete motivities of domestically coming into prominence of agricultural environmental subsidies therefore I think it is important to study how the problematic of sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development and agricultural environment protection worked out in the EU. Finally I survey the main characteristics of domestic agricultural environment management programs fitting into the theories explained above, how the program adjusts to the theories of sustainable development and sustainable agricultural development.
In the dissertation I begin with sustainable development as the broadest theoretical background, then I survey a narrower category, the theories of sustainable agricultural development and how concrete agricultural environmental programs fit into the studied theoretical relations.
As a result of the processes of hungarian economy and society the increase in territorial differences is noticeable in the last few days. The changes in society's status, the rate of increase and the level of development can be tracked for example in the diverse variation of labour market. In my study I would like to demonstrate the typical pro...cesses of labour market based on the time scale between 2000-2007, and I also want to reveal the root causes of the change in unemployment rate. The source of data is a regular, representative labour-survey by the Hungarian Central
Statistical Office based on interviewing people, as well as registration on place-hunters by the Employment and Social Office together with the summary of governmental subsidy. I targeted the age-groups between 15-74 years in my analysis, but the results are not modified by the over 65 years old population because of their small economical importance. I define the status of labour market by markers among others like economical activity, employment rate, unemployment rate, and I also consider the change in the amount of registered place-hunters in the period examined. My aim is to determine the responsible coefficients of the change in unemployment rate.
Is neccessary and possible to take in consideration the regional differences of agriculture- and rural development in the rural development program for period 2014–2020? For answer of this question we try to give some references by reveal of economic and social regional differences.
The aim of the study was the examination of the achievement of the Hungarian agricultural enterprises – special regard to the agricultural co-operatives – based on the aggregated database of Hungarian Tax and Financial Control Administration (APEH), from the database of the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics. From the methodologic...al aspect plain statistical devices were used, indicators for corporate analyses were
calculated and analyzed for the time series. One important conclusion is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that over the general examination of economic actors on an aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single enterprises forms would be needed. In the case of the co-operatives the separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the new type co-operatives would be necessary
Thinning experiments in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands have been carried out for many years in Hungary. This species has great economic importance in the timber supply of the country. This paper evaluates the effects of tending cuttings in two aspects: the effect on yield and stand value. The case study has proved that in bla...ck locust stands tending cuttings can not increase the periodic total production but the stem-quality index can be increased by 2%.
This paper presents economical importance of white lupin /Lupinus albus/. It is an important task as exceptional effectual green manure, that shows VIII treatment’s results of Westsik long-term field experiment. Content of white lupin seed is similar than content of soybean. By the forrage examination the soybean can substitute whit white lup...in seed in 40%. The main problem of the production of lupin seed is the want of long term herbicides. For the solve of this problem to find herbicides which are efficiant for 80-100 days. First we have try 26 different herbicides.
We wish to present a method to quantify the value modifying effects when comparing animal farms. To achieve our objective, multi-variable statistical methods were needed. We used a principal component analysis to originate three separate principal components from nine variables that determine the value of farms. A cluster analysis was carried o...ut in order to classify farms as poor, average and excellent. The question may arise as to which principal components and which variables determine this classification.
After pointing out the significance of variables and principal components in determining the quality of farms, we analysed the relationships between principal components and market prices. Some farms did not show the expected results by the discriminant analysis, so we supposed that the third principal component plays a great role in calculating prices. To prove this supposition, we applied the logistic regression method. This method shows how great a role the principal components play in classifying farms on the basis of price categories.
During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on num...erous occasions by certain interests.
However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.
As member of the European Union, the development if the Hungarian agriculture is determined by the Common Agricultural Policy. After the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003, the environmental protection has got a crucial function. The constant changing role of agriculture has reacted students in higher education. For firms connecte...d to agriculture, human resource management based on competency has an important role in custody of competitiveness. One of the most important goals of firms is to supply the demands of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is required. The quality of human resource is determined not only by its qualification, language skills, professional experience, and practise, but extant competencies that can also be developed. To choose the expectant employee, it is not enough for them to have intelligence and proficiency; it is also decisive to examine their particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s
achievement that will definitely contribute to the success of the enterprise. Basically, closer cooperation is needed between higher education institutions and employers to achieve this goal. At the same time, the higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering the actual requirements of labour market, and accordingly, they can form syllabus in a way to train auspicious experts. In this article examination of the requirements of labour market for graduates from agri-environmental engineering bachelor course is presented.
Many branches of science have been examining the concept of multifunctional agriculture. Different interpretations have come into being on global and regional dimensions as well. This study deals with certain interpretations of the concept of multifunctional agriculture. It compares the concepts about multifunctional agriculture of the United S...tates, the Cairns-group, the least developed countries (the LDC-s), as well as the developed countries which import food (the G10), the concept of the EU and Hungary too. It states that the different approaches to the concept have been started by the agricultural problems which are typical of certain areas. These problems have been formed in each and every area by the threefold functions (economic, social and ecological), which are characteristics of rural areas.
A gazdasági szervezetek differenciálódásának vizsgálatát nyolc éve végezzük. A tanulmányban először adunk átfogó képet e kutatás eredményeiről. A gazdasági szervezetek differenciálódását külön végeztük el a mezőgazdasági szövetkezetekre, a mezőgazdasági társaságokra és az élelmiszer-ipari szervezetekre. Ezek... mindegyikét négy ismérv alapján osztjuk el egy-egy színvonal-skálán. Ezek a következők:
− a gazdaságok nagysága a bruttó termelési érték és a nettó árbevétel nagyságának megoszlása alapján;
− a gazdaságok eladósodásának mértéke szerint, amit az összes kötelezettségének az összes eszközállományhoz viszonyított százalékos aránya fejez ki;
− és végül a jövedelmezőség aránya alapján, amit az adózás előtti eredményeknek az árbevételhez viszonyított aránya mutat.
Terjedelmi korlátok miatt ebben a tanulmányban csak a mezőgazdasági szervezetek differenciálódásának főbb adatait mutatjuk be, azt is rövidítve. A hasonló módszerrel gyűjtött és feldolgozott adatokra támaszkodva vált lehetővé, hogy a mezőgazdasági szervezeteknek nemcsak a jelenlegi helyzetét, hanem jövőjét is megalapozottan előre jelezzük. Ebből kiderül, hogy a magyar agrárszektor üzemeinek mely típusai képesek rövid időn belül felzárkózni az EU piacaiért folyó versenyben, melyeknek kell időt és hatékony segítséget adni, hogy behozzák lemaradásukat és mekkora lesz azoknak az üzemeknek a száma, amelyeknek aligha lesz esélyük a felzárkózásra.
A gazdasági szervezetek a könyvvitelt illetően két csoportra oszlanak. Egyszeres és kettős könyvvitelt vezetőkre. Ez 2003-ig van érvényben. Attól kezdve minden szervezet kettős könyvelést fog vezetni. Addig az egyes könyvelést vezetőket el kell hagynunk, mert mérlegadataik nem azonosak a kettős könyvelést vezetőkével. Az APEH 2000-ben 9749 mezőgazdasági, erdő- és vadgazdálkodási gazdasági szervezet adóbevallását dolgozta fel. Ebből az egyszeres könyvelést vezető vállalkozások aránya 32,9%, mivel ezek általában kisméretű szervezetek, a termelési erőforrásokból és az eredményből való részesedésük számarányuknál jóval kisebb. Így a gazdálkodó szervezetek tevékenységét, annak feltételeit és eredményességét a kettős könyvelést vezetők határozzák meg. A tanulmányban ezek adatait elemezzük.
Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.
In the civil economics, like in the case of any other socialeconomic issues, there are two coexistent theories concerning employment. On one hand we have the classical-neo-classical
school based on Adam Smith’s works. On the other hand we have the teachings based on John Maynard Keynes’ views. All the later hypotheses are based on these
Monetarism, which was invented at the beginning of the 20th century, mixes certain elements of both basic theories. Those who represent monetarism agree on rejecting the economy policy
means which affect the processes of the workforce market, while they consider these above mentioned means applicable to regulate certain processes. By the end of the 1970s the neo-classical macro-economics had developed, which completely refuses these approaches. A decade later the neo-Keynesian macro-economics developed. Its hypotheses regarding especially employment and unemployment lead to some of the employment issues of globalism, which is one of the most influential phenomena of present time.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county shares its borders with three countries: Romania, Ukraine and Slovakia. The county is part of the North Great Plain Region, it is the third largest county of Hungary in terms of its population. The peripheric geographical location of the county gained importance by the EU accession, as the county represents a significant part of the eastern border of the EU.
In the case of winter wheat,the knowledge of several quality features is needed to be able to determine precisely the real quality of the given
wheat. Several systems have been worked out on the qualification of the winter wheat in Hungary and other countries as well. Evaluating the
quality is being made more difficult because the differe
the values of the several quality features are in different intervals and these data are different dimension values. On the evidence of the
results, in the case of considering several features,it can be difficult to rank into one concrete quality cathegory. Researchers are trying to
develop complex quality index numbers in order to be able to define the quality more precisely. One of these complex quality index numbers
is Gyıri’s, so called, Z-index.
In three years from 2006 and 2008, we examined the change of the quality features of nine varieties of winter wheat with the help of the
Z-index under the influence of the effects of the different cropyears and the fertilizer treatment. The results show that the Z-index of the
examined varieties of winter wheat were influenced by several factors. Examining the data of the three different breeding years together we
can observe the corrective effect of the different cropyears on the Z-index, and if we examine the three years separately and together, the
differences of the quality features of the different varieties differentiate very well, and with the help of the Z-index the comparison of the
types is easier and perspicuous, and the Z-index represents the different nutrient reactions of the different types as well. On the average of
the three years, the types gave the best results at N120-150+PK nutrient level. Among the nine varieties the best results were given by Mv Suba,
GK Békés and Mv Mazurka in the case of both low and higher nutrient levels.
Scientists investigating the causes of the extremities of climate that have become quite frequent in the Carpathian Basin over the past few years are quite often in doubts as to whether increased atmospheric warming and the shortage of rainfall are to be seen as recurrent natural phenomena under our climate, or the first signs of global warming.... Climate anomalies have, to a certain extent, always been common in the Carpathian Basin. However, statistical data of the past few decades indicate that the rise in temperature and the fall in precipitation have, by now, become a tendency, which requires further in-depth scientific research.
The series of articles to be published in continuation of this paper endeavors to synthesize the research results and many years of experiences, in order to give an analysis of
I. The economic effects and the symptoms of drought in tree cultures
II. The possibilities of reducing the adverse affects of drought
Predator fish species are in great demand, both in fish production and consumption. Because of their rarity and perfect meat quality, these species have considerable economical significance and increasing domestic and foreign demand.
The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been in Hungary for more than 100 years, but not popular because
Our objective is to ensure the adequacy of the brown bullhead in intensive fish farming and its biological, technological and economic references. The pre-experiments were performed at the Bocskai Fishing Co-operative in Hajdúszoboszló, where we reared the juvenile age class. In our university’s recirculating system we examinated the brown bullhead from the fingerling age class.
The black bullhead prefers artificial feed, and produces excellent growth parameters and a specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.
Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants. Information about the populations of plant pathogen fungi may help to develop new strategies for the effective and economic crop protection with reduced fungicide usage. Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with using different molecular genetic parameters. B. cin...erea group I strains, characterized with high rate of fenhexamid resistance, could be detected only in restricted number. The Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with high genetic diversity, and the regular occurrence of sexual reproduction. These results highlight the importance of rotating different type of fungicide in the plant protection technology against grey mould.
The author presents essential characteristics of the state and place of Poltava region in it. The study aims at identification and description of latest trends in Ukraine’s and Poltava’s dairy industry. The author stresses an important place of the dairy industry in the agriculture of Ukraine, and particularly in the Poltava region. This ar...ticle also presents the information of main indicators of dairy industry of Ukraine in the comparison with other countries of the World. It describe sources of forming the main agricultural products and directions of their use for the calendar year, data on per capita consumption of main dairy products in Ukraine and the Poltava Region and per capita average daily consumption of basic micro- and macro elements in foods. The study contains basic indicators which characterize the social and economic state of agriculture in Ukraine and its regions for 1990–2012. There are also the data of gross production and main kinds of dairy products per capita and as well as some indicators of livestock’s productivity and so on.
The goal of the article is to describe the complex evaluation of the achieved level of milk production, consumption of milk and dairy products in Ukraine and the Poltava Region, to show the specifics of the national dairy cattle breeding, identifying the main challenges in it.
The common smut of maize (corn smut, Ustilago maydis /DC/ Corda) can cause large economic losses in susceptible sweet corn hybrids as well. The protection against this pathogen is fundamentally based on prevention. Many methods to control corn smut have been recommended or evaluated, including crop rotation, sanitation, seed treatments, modific...ation of fertility, and biological control. In spite of these frequently mentioned control strategies, the host resistance seems to be the only effective method to manage common smut in those areas where Ustilago maydis is prevalent.