No 14 (2004)

Published September 22, 2004

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Articles

Analysis of the Grey Colour Intensity in Horses
3-7

An investigation of different grey coat colours and a connection between colour and age of horses was carried out with two Hungarian State Studs: Bábolna and Szilvásvárad. For objective measurement of coat colour Minolta Chromameter (Model CR-210) was used. The average value of L (lightness) level by Shagya and Pure Bred Arabian horses was 6...3.83 ± 2.23, for Lipizzan horses was x=71.00 ± 2.29 respectively. In each stud older horses (over 10 years of age) have a flea-bitten colour stage, which decreased the L value considerably. Changes in coat colour in connection with the greying process did not show an evident tendency in the three breeds.

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The Effect of Grazing Intensities on Magnesium Contents
8-13

Research was carried out on two areas of grassland in Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Two herds of Hungarian Grey Cattle were kept in free range grazing and the effects of grazing pressure on the magnesium content of soil and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) were determined.
Changes of plant available and total soil magnesium content under dif...ferent grazing intensities did not show any evident tendency on the investigated grasslands. Different amounts of cattle faeces, urine and trampling had no effect on the magnesium concentration of ryegrass. We conclude that the magnesium content of ryegrass on both grassland sites as moderate grazing and overgrazing matches the requirements of cattle. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency of cattle will likely not appear.

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Comparative Evaluation of the Temperaments of Charolais and Hungarian Grey Steers
14-19

Animal breeding increasingly lays claim to the theoretical and practical knowledge of applied ethology. The authors’ aim was to evaluate and compare the temperaments of Charolais (CH, n= 10) and Hungarian Grey (HG, n= 10) steers, and also to determine the correlation between their temperament scores and flight speed scores. Temperament was ev...aluated by the results of the scale test (assessing of behaviour in a 1-5 score system, while the animal is standing on a scale for 30 seconds) and flight speed test (minutes it takes the animal to move a set distance of 1.7 m when leaving the scale), on three occasions (1, 2, 3). Data management was done by SPSS.10 (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney-test, Spearman-correlation). Results of the scale test differed significantly between breeds at the third measurement (CH: 2,9 scores; HG: 1,4 scores; P<0,01) and when evaluating the three measurements together (CH: 2,0 scores; HG: 1,37 scores; P<0,05). Concerning of flight speed score, there were significant differences between breeds of steers at each measurement (1. measurement CH: 2,77 s; HG: 4,09 s; P<0,05; 2. measurement CH: 2,89 s; HG: 5,01 s; P<0,01; 3. measurement CH: 2,46 s; HG: 5,33 s; P<0,01) and overall (CH: 2,71 s; HG: 4,81 s; P<0,001). In the case of both breeds, evaluated by measurements and overall, a negative correlation was calculated between temperament score and flight speed score, but this was significant only in three cases: CH1 (n=10) r= -0,75; P<0,01; CH1+2+3 (n=30) r= -0,44; P<0,05; CH+HG1+2+3 (n=60) r= -0,33; P<0,01). Results indicate that Hungarian Grey steers are calmer than individuals of Charolais. Animals behaving calmer on the scale left the scale, more slowly. The authors propose the use of these temperament tests in Hungarian breeding practice, in order to select too temperament animals.

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Effect of Soil Covering on the Soil Enzyme Activity of Integrated Orchard
20-29

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matters (agrofoil and black polyethylene) on the activity of some enzymes (phosphatase, saccharase, urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) occuring in soil. Soil samples were taken from a cider apple plantation of the Fruit Producing Research and Advisory Kht Újfehért.... The enzyme activity was measured according to Krámer and Erdei (1959a), Kuprevič and Tsherbakova (1956), Kuprevič et al. (1966), Frankenberger and Johanson (1983), Mersi and Schinner (1991). Soil moisture content was by conventional (drying chamber) method measured during every sampling and enzyme activity was transpolated to absolute dry soil. Results were estimated by mathematical methods (variation analysis, correlation counting). Soil samples were taken by trials 5 times (in every two months) a year in the vegetation period from March to November.
By recording the monthly changes of the enzyme activity we have observed the following. The activity of the phosphatase was generally the highest in May and the lowest in November. Depending on the trials, high values were also measured in March and September. The activity of the saccharase was generally the highest in November and the lowest in June, but at the same time peaks even occured in May and September. The highest urease avtivity was measured in September and November, and the lowest activity in May and July, also depending on the trials. In the year 2000, after a deep point in March, the activity of the catalase was the highest in November or by certain trials in September. In 2001, the lowest activity was also measured in March, but the highest activity appeared in November in case of one-minute trial, and in May in consequence of two-minute trial. Finally the activity of dehydrogenase was the highest in November and the lowest in July apart from the model years.
There were essential differences in rainfall of the two experimental years which was reflected in the enzyme activities. There was a poor positive significant relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values in case of phosphatase, saccharase, urease (r=0,426; 0,480; 0,396) respectively. In case of catalase1 (r=0,518), catalase (r=0,556), dehydrogenase (r=0,559) we obtained a medium strong positive relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values. By evaluating the effect of different trials in case of every examined enzyme significantly higher values were detected in soils covered by agrofoil (a porous black polyethylene) than in soils covered by black polyethylene or in uncovered soils. Moreover, the soil covered by black polyethylene showed significantly higher enzyme activities (besides phosphatase) than the control soil. Thus soil-covering meant statistically significant advantages in enzyme activity as opposed to uncovered soil proved.

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Economic Aspects of Bioethanol Production
30-38

Sustainability and multifunctionality look to be crucial points of the future of developed agriculture. Energy utilization of a part of the available biomass perfectly fits in these expectations. Bioethanol production allows for the substitution of the most expensive and most pollutable energy source, gasoline, by agricultural materials. This a...rticle contains a complex evaluation of economic characteristics of this method and calculations for the expectable economic effects of a would-be Hungarian bioethanol program. This essay includes the most important technological knowledge, a comparison between bioethanol and the competitive energy sources (gasoline, biodiesel, MTBE) and the most interesting elements of bioethanol programs operating in foreign countries. Introduced are which participants in the bioethanol chain have financial interests and counter-interests under present economic conditions in the spread of bioethanol by the enumerazation of macro- and micro-economic factors. The statements and consequences are based on my own calculatiosn so I am truly interested in any professional opinion.

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The Poultry Industry through the Experts’ Eyes
39-42

In my study reveal the situation of the poultry industry. In my research, I used the regularly adopted qualitative method, i.e. the interview. I conversed with the managers of the most important poultry factories, and asked them about the position of the Hungarian poultry sector, the possibility of improving its position, the changes in consume...r behaviour, in marketing strategies, means and methods.
The managers talked about the necessity of collaborating between factories. They agreed on the dominance of commercial chains. In their opinion, these prejudice their chances. They emphasized about the increasing role of processed products and the growing number of sell-stimulated marketing means. The consumer behaviour has changed in the last 10 years too, which helps the market of processed poultry products.

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Development of and Lessons from the Institution System of the Common Agricultural Policy in Slovenia
43-53

The comprehensive agricultural policy of Slovenia during the setting-up of its agricultural institutional system for implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy has enabled the setting-up and design of the Paying Agency system to handle national and EU subsidies according to schedule. The country has acted on the advice of the European Uni...on to use the introduction of SAPARD measures as a preparatory and experimental field for utilising subsidies after EU accession. Moreover, in addition to the importance of gaining practical experience in the field of implementation of rural development measures, Slovenia has recognised the necessity to become familiar with the application procedures for obtaining direct payments relevant for the largest group of beneficiaries, farmers. Accordingly, farmers have been practicing for 3 years how to fill in application forms, and have gained important experience before opening the most relevant resources. Also, the advisers supporting farmers to obtain subsidies have been trained during the last 3 years, in order to provide real assistance. EU agricultural subsidies are not divided among the Member States; there will be a strong competition not only with the new Member States, but also with the farmers of the more developed EU-15.
Slovenia has done its best in order to launch its farmers – due to the different development levels of the EU-25 Member States – into this very strong competition not like pupils, but at least like mature secondary school students.

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Development Level of Settlements of the Statistical Subregion of Nagykálló
54-59

I have attempted to develop methods and applications for indices used to evaulate the development of settlements. At first stage the complex index applied by the Central Statistical Office (CSO) was differentiated according to economic, ecological and social aspects, and at the same time the system of indices was extended. As a result of these ...the ranking list of the exemined settlements has changed compared to the ranking based on the complex index applied by the CSO. There are significant differences particulary in the evaulation of the ecological development, however, in same cases ranking of economic and social development of settlements is also different. These analyses demonstrate that by using more indices the evaluation of development of settlement would be more objective, and by classifying according to the three functions of the country the countradictions would be more visible.

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Concentration and Horizontal Integration in Milk Production
60-66

Agriculture in Hungary was characterised by the duality of large-scale farms (co-ops and state farms) and small-scale private enterprises until the beginning of the 1990s. Due to the privatisation and transformation of co-ops farm structure has significantly changed. The transformation of the structure is not considered to be a completed proces...s. Level of concentration and integration on private farms are rising, new co-operation forms are appearing and new types of enterprises and producers’ groups are being formed.
Concentration and integration have great importance in the dairy sector among agricultural enterprises. In recent years, milk production in the European Union has been characterised by concentration, leading to greater competitiveness. Today, most dairy producers belong to different kinds of producers’ organisations as concentrated demand may only be competitive by meeting concentrated supply. In Hungary, the problems of production have been the fragmentation and decrease of the average farm size while, at the same time, concentration has occurred in the processing sector. Establishing producers’ groups may be one of the solutions for improving competitiveness production.

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The Effect of Mg Foliage Fertilization on Beetroot (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculenta var. rubra) Morphology, Quality Traits and their Relations
67-72

Mg-treatment increased solid soluble content in roots probably due to the larger assimilation area.
The applied foliage fertilization affected inner colour intensity and uniformity in roots positively.
The 2% Mg-sulphate solution affected pigment quantity favourably depending on varieties.
Close correlation (r=0,71) was found between t...he yellow (BX) and red (BC) pigments which indicates a similar biosynthetic pathway of the two compounds.
The Mg-sulphate foliage fertilization improves quality considerably but the individual reaction of varieties needs further studies.

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Career Monitoring, Institutional Assessment and Ranking
73-77

The labour market started to make a difference between the diplomas issued by higher educational institutions. The decision of prospective students considerably depends on the labour market value of a certain diploma. Career monitoring of graduates is a very important task of higher educational institutions. Feedback and experiences from the gr...aduates and the employers are valuable sources of information for the institutions to shape their teaching activities in order to meet the actual demand of the labour market. Career monitoring of graduates is not a common activity at present in Hungary. Some institutions regularly monitor the labour market position of their graduates, but unfortunately most institutions do not invest time or manpower in such activities. A country level study has already been introduced that included almost all the higher educational institutions in Hungary. This study, coordinated by the Hungarian Ministry of Education, appears ready to be continued. The aim of this study is to introduce some institutional and country level initiations of career monitoring.

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