Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food ch...ain receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.
Everywhere in the world button mushroom is cultivated on heat-treated horse manure or on a compost mixture of straw, horse manure and chicken manure. In the ZKI trials continued on straw which seemed to be a simple and cheap substrate. To improve yield the N-content of the straw was increased by mixing it with wheat bran, alfalfa flour and ProM...ycel. Enriching agents were added to the dry heat-treated straw (100 "C) at 1, 2, 3 weight per cent. All the 3 agents increased yield as related to control. The highest yield was obtained with ProMycel.
Our experiments aimed at comparing the yields of the oyster mushroom hybrid Pleurotus HK 35 with those of the species Pleurotus sajor-caju on wheat straw. No data concerning the yields of the "Indian oyster" has so far been published in Hungary. The objective was, on the one hand, to discover what "phoenix" yields could be exp...ected on 100 kg substrate, and on the other hand, to compare the yields with those of Pleurotus HK 35 which plays a dominant role in commercial production. We were also curious to know the amounts of harvest losses with the two mushrooms when picked with cut stems. It would be advisable to make progresses in developing production technology, especially in increasing yields. Considering that in its native place this species is able to provide yields even at temperatures of 22-28 °C, it seems possible that in hot summer months, as a shift from the hybrid HK 35, the production of the "Indian oyster" could be more economical.
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom), the object of our experiments, is also known to contain medicinal compounds. This fungus has been used for many centuries as medicine in China. The fruiting body of the fungus contains carbohydrates, amino acids, little protein, fat, alkaloids, vitamins and minerals. Two groups of its substances are reported... to be effective particularly. One of them is constituted by the polysaccharides, whose antitumor and immunostimulating effects are well demonstrated, and the other is constituted by the triterpenes. The latter include ganoderic acids, ganolucidic acids and lucideric acids. These acids have been reported to suppress liver hyperactivity (Lelley 1999). The experiment was carried out with 8 Reishi mushroom strains in 3 repetitions. Experiments were performed on 3 different substrates The spawn run period took approximately 2 weeks, the first fruiting bodies appeared on the 33rd day from inoculation, but the formation of the fruiting bodies took almost 70 days on the different substrates. Spawn run presented a diversified picture as influenced by the specific substrates. No spawn run was seen with any of the strains on the substrate composed of 100% wheat straw. Among the strains the fastest spawn run was produced by GA02 and GA06. The earliest start of spawn run was registered for substrate 1 after 1 week.