In this study we were studying the question whether walnut production under domestic natural and economic circumstances shall be considered a profitable activity or not. Our partial objective is to determine, what level of natural inputs and production costs are required for walnut production, what yield level, selling price and production valu...e can be attained, what level of profitability, rentability and efficiency may production have, is the establishment of a walnut orchard profitable on the entire lifespan of the plantation, and the production of which is more efficient: the dry shelled walnut production requiring postharvest activity or the raw, shelled walnut without postharvest activities. In this study, comparison of two systems is conducted. First version: producer establishes a walnut plantation and sells walnut raw and shelled. Second version: producer also invests into a drying facility, and in this case the end product is the dry, shelled walnut. If the producer sells walnut right after harvest in a raw bulk, total production costs in productive years reaches 974,011 HUF/ha. Attainable yield is 2.63 t/ha with 396.3 HUF/kg selling price, therefore the profit is 138,258 HUF/ha with 14.19% cost-related profitability. In the case when the producer sells dried, shelled walnut, production costs are 25% higher compared to that of raw walnut due to the cost of drying. By calculating with the postharvest loss, average yield is 1.84 t/ha, however, its selling price is way higher (882.84 HUF/kg), therefore the profit per hectare reaches 475,496 HUF with 39.01% cost-related profitability. Thus it can be stated that walnut production in an average year may be profitable even without postharvest, but efficiency is improved significantly when the producer sells the products dried. Investment profitability analysis revealed that production of raw, shelled walnut is not economically viable, since the plantation does not pay off on its entire lifespan (30 years), while walnut production with postharvest is efficient and rentable, since both net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) showed more favourable values than in the previous case, and the orchard pays off in the 21th year after establishment.
In this present study the returning issues and profit conditions of domestic walnut production are investigated. Our objective is to determine the fact that under what conditions our walnut production may be competitive and maintained in an economic way regarding the present economic and market situations. Our analysis was carried out by a dete...rministic model based on a farm-level data gathering in production enterprises. The total investment cost of an up-to-date walnut orchard is up to 3000 thousands HUF per hectare and turning to
productivity is expected within 8-10th years. These orchards are able to produce a yield of 3 tons per hectare in the years of productivity in a normal year, thus in case of a medium-good selling prices a profit of 500 thousand HUF per hectare may be realized. As a result at the end of the whole lifetime of the orchard (30th year) an internal rate of return (IRR) of 10 to 12% may be calculated and the return is expected in the 20th to 22nd year, which may be considered as a very late return. Taking the 20 to 25% probability of harmful whether phenomena (frost, drought) into consideration, it may be concluded that in good years a performance reaching a yield of 4 tons per hectare is necessary in the long-run in order to achieve the profitable and sustainable production in an economic way. This is managed to reach in only the most up-todate orchards.
In Romania, walnut Juglans regia L. is an important fruit crop, although most of the fruit production comes from non-grafted walnut trees, which are natural hybrids. Breeding programs have been launched during last 30 years to develop new cultivars with uniform fruit quality. In addition, foreign cultivars have been introduced and test...ed to establish a valuable walnut genepool. To improve the present assortment of generative rootstocks in walnut and to examine the infestation level, a long term survey was carried out in Eastern Transylvania. The main physical characteristics of fruits and its variation to the infestation level were considered. The cumulative distribution of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis and Gnomonia leptostyla were relatively low and the maximum value was around 15%. The highest infestation of husk with X. arboricola pv. juglandis was observed for roundish forms and differences were statistically significant comparing with other phenotypes. Infestation with G. leptostyla was similar for roundish, elliptic and thwarting egg-shaped phenotypes, while the husk infestation for egg-shaped phenotypes was not observed. The walnut population studied in our experiment can be considered as a genetically valuable population. More than 20% of them have upper class quality fruits with at least or more than 50% of nutmeat. Do to the large scale climate variation in Eastern Transylvania and the high humidity favourable for pathogen infestations, these population can be considered resistant and well adapted to abiotic and biotic factors.
The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.
The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour...cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.
The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.
As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.