Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-ro...otstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.
A decline, a slow or sudden decay of vine trunks can occur in any phase of trunk life. In senescent or old plantages the increase in trunk decay is quite common but it is unacceptable in young plantage in their best production years.All over the world as well as in Hungary, a drastic decay of young trunks in nurseries and new plantages have cau...sed panic in the past decades. From among the numerous fungal pathogens which are responsible for considerable financial and yield losses and threaten stock vigour Petri disease, esca and Black foot are the most important. In young decaying plants the fungal species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon spp. were the most frequent while other fungi causing different trunk diseases, cancer or decay, like Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeria spp. and Fomitiporia mediterranea were also found. The most important infection source is the infected propagation material. Infection is systematic, the disease process is latent, diseased plants cannot be cured, thus, prevention is the only answer to the challenge.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are destroying the woody parts of the plants, resulting decline or dieback of the grapevine. More detailed research of the GTD began in 1950s, when Hewitt et al. (1957) observed that specific symptoms cannot be detected on the diseased trunks every year. Latest results have also proved that abiotic factors affect... the appearance and the severity of the disease. Moreover several pathogenic fungi may play role as causative agents (Bertsch et al., 2013). Eutypa, Botryosphaeria, Phomopsis dieback, esca disease complex, and Petri disease are considered the major GTDs, where a variety of pathogens attack the woody perennial organs of the vine and ultimately lead to the death of the plant (Lehoczky, 1974; Larignon & Dubos, 1997; Rolshausen et al. 2010; Kotze et al., 2011; Bertsch et al., 2013; Fontaine et al., 2015).
The GTD incidence has been reported to be increased during the last decades (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2014). The esca incidence has reached 60% to 80% in some old vineyards in southern Italy (Pollastro et al., 2000; Surico et al., 2000; Calzarano & Di Marco, 2007). The disease incidence of the esca was reported to be increased from 1.83% to almost 13%, between 2003 and 2007 in Hungary (Dula, 2011). There was detected a five times increase in the GTD disease incidence in the Tokaj Wine Region, Hungary between 2014 and 2016 (Bihari et al,