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The effect of day and night temperatures on apple skin colour formation
Published February 19, 2008

The colour of fruits is considered to be an important quality indicator. Saleability greatly depends on how well covered the colour is of the specific type of fruits. It is a well-known phenomenon by growers that apples get nicer colours in one year while in other years the basically red and green colour cultivars can be differentiated only by ...morphological characteristic features. Cover colour is one of the phenometric variables and it is a well-known fact that significant differences can be experienced year by year. The experienced oscillation can be the cause of inappropriate water- and nutriment supply, however it can be the result of some kind of plant disease, extremely high or low temperature, setting rate above the average and outstanding fruit density. In the present examination it is postulated that the degree of cover colour is mostly influenced by day and night temperature. Therefore, our study aims to find out whether it is true or not. Cover colour belongs to those phenometric characteristic features, only the final value of which is taken into consideration; due to their nature of establishment or forming time it seems useless to follow closely the change in the time of vegetation. However, determining the start of colouring and knowing the dynamics of full colouring could carry very important information for growers. If it is possible to determine the curve describing the time change of colouring, we have a possibility to estimate it by means of enviroment variables. So it is also possible to model pigmentation in the future. Knowing this, colouring irrigation could be made more efficient in the future. For this, as a first step, it is inevitable to find out what the relationship is between the main meteorogical variables, namely day and night temperature and the difference between day and night temperature, and colour cover. In this study we summarize and show these interrelations.

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Assessment of apple varieties based on consumer judgement on their fruits of organic production for fresh consumption
Published September 2, 2009

The lack of information is often cause of the insufficiency of attributes being developed and appears on the new commodity characterising its utility. Neither own nor other information is presented. For improving this handicap, we endeavoured to praise apple products grown by biological methods and explain their properties as taste, skin, colou...r, consistency, and size. In addition, we explore the relation between general impression and the individual properties. The scrutiny starts with collecting of primary data on 9 samples taken from biologically grown apple varieties kept over 60–90 days in a store and offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionnary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive judging the preferences in consumption of fruits.

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Assessment of apple varieties based on consumer judgement in integrated production for fresh consumption
Published January 3, 2010

In a former paper we treated the same relation comparing varieties frown in the biological or organic system of growing, now the tests have been performed with samples grown by the integrated system. The scores registered properties as taste, skin, colour, consistency and size. In addition, we also explored the relation between general impressi...on and the individual properties.As first purpose, we started with collecting primary data on 15 samples taken from fruits grown by the integrated method and kept over 60–90 days in a store, then offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive in judging the preferencial consumption of fruits.

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Response of sour cherry cultivar `Érdi jubileum' fruits to modified atmosphere packaging after ethephon spraying
Published March 25, 2009

Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The object...ive of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.

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Consumer preference for apples: the role of attributes influencing the choice and consumption
Published March 25, 2009

Consumers consider good quality fruits to be those that look good, are firm and offer good flavour and nutritive value. Nowadays, consumers are, however, increasingly  interested  in food qualities which  cannot  be discovered  by  looking, tasting or smelling  the products but their roles are not yet really c...leared up. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore the importance of selected kinds of attributes (taste, size, colour, cultivar, origin and price) in fluencing the choice of apples of customers. In accordance with several authors, fruit qualities (taste, size and colour) seemed to be the major attributics influencing the choice of apple independently of people's age and gender. However, the size of fruit had lower importance with increased age. Generally, females gave higher importance rating for most attributes than did male. The price was getting more important for consumer's choice with age which can be connected with their socioeconomic situation. The origin of fruit and the cultivar did not have important influence on consumer's choice. Authors also investigated the preference of consumers for six selected apple varieties ('Jonagold', 'ldared', 'Royal Gala', 'Golden Reinders', 'Braeburn' and 'Granny Smith'). and pointed out the role of the origin in fruit quality and in choice of apple in the case of 'Granny Smith' cultivar. Apple fruit samples from Austria, Argentina, Chile, Hungary and South Africa were involved in this study. Authors evaluated fruit quality parameters of above cultivars and compared them to consumer preference. Consumer preference usually represented the quality attributes of the fruit well. It is also concluded that degree of liking of apple cultivars varies through gender and age. Children and young consumers preferred 'Royal Gala', 'Granny Smith  and 'Braeburn' mostly. In spite of 'Idared' is one of the cultivars grown on the largest area in Hungary, the lowest preference ratings were given for it in both gender categories. Middle-aged consumers (between 25 and 50 years or age) preferred crispy apples with red or blemished skin color ('Royal Gala' and 'Jonagold'). 'Jonagold' and 'Idared' were the most preferred cultivars for the consumers above the age of 50 likely because of their relatively low price, as price plays a significant influencing role in the purchase of these consumers. The relatively expensive and soury 'Granny Smith' appeared not really preferred by this age group. In spite of the significant differences in instrumentally measured fruit quality parameters among 'Granny Smith' fruit samples from different countries, consumers did not give significantly different preference rating scores for those.

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