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Study of genetic resources for Powdery mildew resistance by biochemical and physiological parameters on peaches and nectarines in Romania
Published March 16, 2004
57-61.

During 1997-2002, studies on the physiological and biochemical changes due to powdery mildew attack in peach and nectarine cultivars and hybrids belonging to different classes of resistance had been performed at the Research Station for Fruit Tree Growing (RSFTG) Baneasa Bucharest, located in the southern part of Romania. The study was based on... disease assessments in the field and on other diagnosis criteria.

The southern part of Romania has favourable ecological conditions for growing peach and nectarine but trees have been attacked by various pathogens such as Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.: Fr.) Lev. var. persicae Woronichin fungus for a long time. The presence of the pathogen causes important changes in the quantity and quality of fruits and affects the metabolism of trees.

This study was focused on several physiological and biochemical parameters such as photosynthesis and respiration intensity along with catalase activity; and changes in some biochemical compounds such as free, total and linked water content, dry matter, nitrogen and protein content, tannin levels. The aim was to find possible correlation among the above parameters and the biotic stress induced by the powdery mildew fungus calculated as attack degree (AD%).

Results showed that photosynthesis diminished significantly in the case of the attacked phenotypes, the respiration was more intense in the infected cultivars and catalase proved to be less intense in the affected plants. The total water content significantly increased in contrast to the dry matter and tannin contents, which greatly reduced in the case of resistant cultivars such as 'Victoria', Vectared 7', 'KB 11-40'. The total nitrogen and protein levels showed less influence on resistance to powdery mildew on all cultivars. All genetic material found resistant to powdery mildew is currently used in peach and nectarine breeding programs in Romania.

Further studies focused on isolation and characterization of resistance genes for powdery mildew resistance will be done in the future based on data collected during several years.

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Sunburn assessment: A critical appraisal of methods and techniques for characterizing the damage to apple fruit
Published August 16, 2010
7-14.

Many methods and techniques have been introduced for measuring alterations in the fruit and in its surrounding environment related to sunburn incidence. The research objectives, fruit materials and the environment to be evaluated dictate the methods to follow. These procedures are either non-destructive and involve techniques that allow us to t...rack the course of sunburn development and related environmental parameters, or destructive and involve the removal of fruit from the tree for field/laboratory measurements. Techniques employed can be used for pre-symptomatic monitoring (before symptoms become visible) or characterizing the symptoms already present. The principles behind the measurements and their usefulness for sunburn assessments are discussed and critically evaluated in this review paper. Descriptions and evaluations of the methods and techniques were made in the following groups: 1. Thermal measurements; 2. Visual assessments; 3. Fruit quality measurements; 4. Measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations; and 5. Practical evaluation of sunburn damage. Thermal measurements involve methods tracking the ambient temperature and fruit surface temperature, and their relation to sunburn formation. Visual assessments cover all measuring techniques (skin color, chlorophyll fluorescence, radiation reflection, electron microscopy) that are able to detect changes on/in the fruit skin related to sunburn formation. Fruit quality measurements are used to point out differences in qualities (soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, and water content) between unaffected and sunburned areas of the fruit. The measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations (gas exchange, pigment analysis, enzyme activity, gene expression) give us a better insight to the mechanism of sunburn formation. Practical evaluations involve many procedures that are used by scientists to characterize the susceptibility of cultivars, evaluate protection technology, etc. For this purpose, the following methods are in use: expressing the percentage of the total fruit surface area affected by sunburn or the percentage of the total number of fruits damaged on the tree, or even a scale based on the severity of the symptoms occurred. All assessing methods and techniques described here have their pros and cons as well as their specific applicability, therefore any of these cannot be favored to use exclusively for assessing sunburn incidence. The combination of these techniques will be the best choice to meet a given research objective perfectly.

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131
149
Effect of over tree cooling irrigation on ‘Bosc’ pear orchards microclimate
Published July 2, 2016
153-156.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surfa...ce temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.

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100
98
Hydroponic pepper growing on baked clay pellets
Published September 26, 2006
37-40.

Nowadays one of the most important issues of greenhouse vegetable production in soilless media is the protection of the environment, in particular, the selection of the root medium to be applied. The objective of the trial was to test the applicability of baked (expanded) clay granules in hydroponic pepper growing with special respect to the gr...owing pot (plastic tubes and buckets with bottom and lateral holes). From the result of the experiment it can be concluded that baked clay pellets, similarly to rockwool, are a suitable medium for providing root anchorage for pepper, however, it is necessary to examine some technological issues (e.g. fertilization, irrigation) prior to starting a large scale commercial cultivation. Relative to the three growing containers tested, it can be concluded that with the 4-8 mm crushed clay pebbles cultivation can be carried out successfully both in the white plastic tube and in the bucket, with the latter it is recommended to locate the drainage holes on the side of the growing container (at 6 cm from the bottom of the bucket).

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87
108
Valuable offsprings of Seyve-Villard 12375
Published November 15, 2004
75-77.

Powdery mildew, Phylloxera and downy mildew epidemics devastated large areas of vineyards in Hungary in the 1800s. To establish new plantages resistant so called "direct producers" were imported from America (direct means "without grafting"). Direct producers have secure yield but their quality is inferior. After World War II, an organized bree...ding programme was started to replace them and parallel to this the law prohibited their production. As a resistance gene source, the E.2 clone (S. V. 12375 E.2) of Seyve-Villard 12375, Franco-American hybrid selected in Eger was used by Hungarian breeders. Several valuable hybrid families have originated from crosses of this variety hybrid.

In the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology at Kecskemét, two valuable table grape hybrids were registered under the names of R.65=Esther and R.78=Fanny coming from 2 hybrid families of the parent S. V. 12375 E.2. Both varieties may be cultivated "environmentally".

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78
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Technologies developed to avoid frost damages caused by late frost during bloom in the fruit growing regions of Siófok and Debrecen
Published July 2, 2016
99-105.

The aim of the study was to fi nd out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. Three technologies have been tested in the regions of Siófok and Debrecen-Pallag. The antifrost irrigation proved to be the most advantageous. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, w...hich are thrifty and do not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be suffi cient. By means of a detailed analysis served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0°C near the fl owers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to –8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used anti-frost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. The Frostbuster represents a new technology developed for the same purpose of frost defence. It uses butane burning and produces high (80-90°C) temperature with a strong blast of air. On the protected area sensors have been distributed for measuring temperature and relative humidity. The means of the measurements proved a rise of temperature, which was suffi cient to save the fruit trees until the difference is less than –3–3.5 °C. Our analyses stated that paraffi n candles avert the frost until –4 °C. Its success depends largely on the intensity of air movements. A small wind would be enough to frustrate the effect. The results show clearly the utility of Frostbuster and paraffi n candle combined is approved.

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Cooling irrigation as a powerful method for microclimate modification in apple plantation
Published March 15, 2011
33-37.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface... temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. InMarch 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Gala apple orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low.At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Gala apple variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured apple yields.

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