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Comparison of macrofungi communities anti examination of macrofungi-plant interactions in forest stands in North Hungary
Published May 18, 2005

Parallel phyto- and mycocoenological investigations have been made since 2001 in all characteristic forest types in Borzsony Mts., North Hungary. The main aim of this work was the examination of similarities between plant and fungal communities, as well as the plant—fungi connections within certain habitats. Among the total 381 macrofungi spe...cies documented, 330 occurred in the investigated 7 forest stands. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities of coniferous stands can be separated unambiguously from those of deciduous stands. Communities of deciduous stands can be divided into two subgroups: those fructifying in wet and in semidry stands. The main factors which influence the composition of wood inhabiting fungal communities seem to be, in decreasing order: (1) crown layer composition; and (2) soil properties (probably only humidity). Wood-inhabiting fungal communities do not show any relation with the underwood layer of particular plant associations. Amongst soil inhabiting fungal communities, three groups can be separated: (1) those of coniferous stands and alderwood; (2) those of the two climax stands; and (3) those of the two edaphic deciduous stands. Classification of these communities is similar to classification of plants of underwood layers. Probably both are dependent upon soil properties (humidity and pH) of particular habitats, but the range of mycorrhizal partners is also decisive for macrofungi communities. All investigated stands are under forestry management, with low quantity of dead and infected wood, so forestry management type may have a great influence in composition of both wood and soil saprotrophic fungal communities.

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Sensory evaluation of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) hybrids
Published October 18, 2016

Comprehensive system of sensory evaluation was developed to obtain information on the different varieties by determining asparagus quality parameters. 9 sensory characteristics were estimated to describe flavour differences. The tests were carried out in 4 varieties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) grown on brown humus sand soil by... etiolate method in ridge cultivation. The experiment was performed at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Pallag. To increase the Hungarian asparagus consumption, a classification of varieties
regarding to asparagus flavour is necessary. In our experiment it could be stated that there are strict correlations (0.892) between the sweetness – total impression and between lacks of unpleasant aftertaste – total impression (0.870). The result of surveys can lead to higher popularity of the asparagus. These results are presented in order to recommend the varieties to producers for a successful marketing. The taste of asparagus is mostly influenced by variety, soil type and growing conditions. In our experiment, ‘Vitalim’ hybrid exceeded by several sensory parameters. This hybrid scored 788.38 over 900. The elder population showed more interest in asparagus consumption than younger ones. 50% of the participants are able to pay only 500-600 HUF/kg. It could be realized to ensure the proper growing place, hybrid and direct trade. Marketing and more information is necessary to increase the popularity of this vegetable among the younger generation.

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Relative ecological and biological indicator values of plum and prune cultivars
Published September 20, 2015

The study was conducted to compare historical plums, gene collections, and is currently cultivated and recent perspective varieties from the author. The object of the study was the relative ecological Borhidi’s figures and classification of varieties under the new definition, as the relative biological values. There were 11 figures no one in ...particular affect the data of the plums grown in importance as TB, WB, RB, LB, and the values are relative biological value (OP, FR, SS, and DR). The specificity of each indicator was different, but in general the  importance and specific breeds was associated with. The SB (salt figures) is not proved informative, partly because small data in the literature, on the other hand, had little to their own observations as well. The gene bank of Cegléd is now third-generation (1951–1972, 1973–1991, since 1992) kind of collection, during which many aspects have changed climatic conditions: cold winter eased the strictness, but has increased the threat
of spring frost advection. The relative biological scores markedly influenced around flowering extreme weather (dry, windy weather and so flowering in within 2-3 days), optimal conditions of the plum pox virus vectors and of course the presence of fruit and foliage harmful fungi. It see to be, in the case of semi-wild and wild fruit species – are possible with similar comparative analyzes, and hopefully will in feral forms, culture – as we have seen previously (Surányi 2000 and 2006). In the continuation analysis of the natural vegetation and cultural context of the complex multifactorial factors will be carried out more easily, according to the relative value figures, as well as rootstock effects and plantation’s habitat studies, and even the most phytotechnical evaluation of interventions.

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Work organization and economic analysis of the postharvest of an unique Hungarian product
Published September 26, 2006

We have viewed a business in the south of the Great Plain Region from an economic point of view in 2004-2005. The main activity there is pear growing and storage. Four varieties of different time of ripening and storing are grown there. We have measured all the relevant activities, worked out a local normative and prepared a detailed technology.... The economic evaluation was based on this data. Activities, like disinfection, pre-storage disinfection and selection, in-storing and out-storing, classification after storage, packaging, as well as loading trucks, were monitored by variety. Storage loss was determined and widely varied according to varieties, length of storage and time of out-storing. Different varieties resulted in different quality classes after storage. Price depended on the quality classes. Economic evaluation was carried out when all the relevant costs and revenues were known. Fixed and variable costs of storage were determined, break-even point was calculate and the market position of the product was evaluated.

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Investigation of nitrate accumulation in green pepper
Published February 8, 2006

Pepper, despite being among the vegetables consumed in largest quantities, does not play an important role as a nitrate source due to the low nitrate accumulation capacity of the cultivars grown in Hungary. Iii the classification of the average nitrate levels or that of the detected hazardous levels it can be sorted into the very 'favorable' cl...ass not exceeding 200 and 500 mg/kg respectively. The different elements of the production technology, this way the N supply, do not influence significantly the amount of nitrate accumulated within pepper fruits.

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RAPD analysis of grapevine hybrids and cultivars
Published November 15, 2004

Utilization of the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique as a molecular marker was tested to investigate the relationships between some representative grapevine cultivars and hybrids established at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding (CUB), to distinguish clones as well as to characterize various hybrids between spec...ies or cultivars and their parents. Vitis vinifera cultivars were easily and successfully distinguished by the RAPD technique and they were grouped according to the traditional taxonomic classification. RAPD patterns of the examined Pinot gris clones proved to be completely identical. Number of generations was reflected by the value of genetic distance of the examined hybrids. Genetic identity of parents and their offsprings was influenced by the selection applied in the process of plant breeding. Parental phenotypic and morphologic characteristics showed high degree of segregation in hybrids, but RAPD analysis revealed that their genetic similarity is considerable. The three Vitis anntrensis clones were properly discriminated from every cultivar and hybrid of Vitis vinifera, i.e. hybrids are much closer to the cultivated grapevine than to V. anzurensis due to the phenotypic selection carried out during the life-cycle of one or two generations.

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Pollen morphology of fruit species
Published June 6, 2000

Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.

The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.


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